Thursday, April 21, 2011

VI. Kidney diseases

Kidney diseases is defined as a health condition due to damage to the nephrons. this damage overtimes reduces the kidneys ability in waste removal, resulting in kidney failure or renal failure.

1. Symptoms
a. Burning or difficulty during urination
b. high blood pressure
c. Fatigue
d. Loss of appetite
e. Persistence of thirst
f. Weight loss
g. Pain in the small of the back just below the ribs
h. Frequent urination
i. Puffiness around the eyes, swelling of the hands and feet
j. Etc.

2. Risk factors
a. Diabetes
Almost 40% of new dialysis patients have diabetes, making it the fastest growing risk factor for kidney disease. High levels of sugar in the bloodstream overtimes damage tiny blood vessels in the kidneys, resulting in resulting the kidney ability to filter the blood properly.

b. High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)
High Blood Pressure overtimes can cause damage of the blood vessels, leading to damage of the kidney blood vessels that reduces the function of kidney function of removing wastes and extra fluid from the body.
c. Blockage of urinary tract system
Blockage of urinary tract system due to birth defect or infection can cause the urine flow back to the kidney, resulting in kidney disease overtime.

d. Painkillers
The researchers found that heavy users of aspirin or paracetamol for a prolong period of time over 300 grams a year was linked to a condition known as small, indented and calcified kidneys (SICK).
e. Drug abuse
Researcher found that syndrome of heroin-associated nephropathy presents with massive proteinuria and progresses rapidly supports the premise that heroin or its vehicles elicits immunologically mediated renal damage.

f. Inflammation
Several studies suggest that chronic inflammation can predispose advanced chronic kidney disease patients to a catabolic state leading to worsening of protein-energy wasting by both increasing protein breakdown and decreasing protein synthesis

g. Family History of Kidney Disease
If one or more family members in you family have CKD, are on dialysis, you are at higher risk.

h. Premature Birth
A study, published on November 19, 2008 in the Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, links premature birth with a form of kidney disease. Some of these individuals may develop kidney problems later in life.

i. Age
Kidney function is reduced with age, the older you are, the greater your risk.

j. Certain Diseases
Certain diseases such as lupus erythematosus, sickle cell anemia, cancer, AIDS, hepatitis C, etc. can increase the risk of kidney disease.

k. Etc.

3. Free radicals and kidney diseases
The evidence of free radicals damage plays an important role in the pathogenesis of may kind of kidney disease. Researchers found that as we age, production of the levels of potent plutathione is reduced while reduced gluyathoine increased, leading to serious kidney disease compared with the younger population.
In other study, researchers also found that monocytes and neutrophils used by immune system in fighting against foreign invasion can cause damage to glomerulus in filtering out metabolic and waste.

4. Antioxidants and kidney diseases
Antioxiants play the essential role in assisting the body in reducing the risk of kidney disease. One study showed that catalase was able to reduce 75% of glomerular injure.
a. Vitamin E and probucol
In rat sudy, vitamin E and anti-hyperlipidemic drug probucol suppress MC proliferation and glomerular sclerosis in models of glomerular disease in rats study, that suggest antioxidants may be a promising intervention to prevent progression of kidney disease.

b. Dimethyl sulfoxide
A experiment with renal epithelial cells grown in culture with condition of which oxygen availability was greatly reduced then oxygen was reintroduced, leading to increased oxidative stress. When dimethyl sulfoxide was introduced, the level of oxidative stress was decreased.

c. Green tea
In same study, researcher found that antioxidants of green tea introduced also showed inhibition of oxidative stress.

d. RVD+Vitamins
Single-kidney hemodynamics and function at baseline and during vasoactive challenge were quantified using electron-beam computed tomography in pigs after 12 wk of experimental atherosclerotic renovascular disease (RVD) found that basal renal blood flow (RBF) and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) were similarly decreased in the stenotic kidney of both atherosclerotic renovascular disease (RVD) groups but significantly improved in RVD+Vitamins.

e. Chronic renal failure
In a study, patients with chronic renal failure who express the elevation of malonaldehyde, a depress levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids and low level of vitamin E were placed on a low protein diet, with amino and keto acids and vitamin A, C, E showed reversal afterward.

f. Etc.

Free radical and Glomerulus Antioxidant assist