Tuesday, April 19, 2011

G. Lung cancer

Lung cancer is a disease caused by uncontrolled cell growth in tissues of the lung. This growth may lead to spreading of a disease from one part to another non-adjacent part of the body and responsible over 1 million deaths worldwide annually.

1. Symptoms
a. A cough that gets worse or doesn’t go away
b. Constantly cough in a smoker or a former smoker should raise concern for lung cancer.
c. Breathing problems
d. Wheezing or hoarseness due to blockage or inflammation in the lungs
e. Constant chest pain, especially when you cough
f. Coughing up blood occurs in a significant number of people having lung cancer
g. Frequent chest infections, such as pneumonia, or an infection that doesn’t go away
h. Fatigue (feeling very tired all the time)
j. Unexplained weight loss
k. Etc.

2. Risk factors
a. Smoking
Cigarette contains over 60 diferences chemicals which can cause cancers. Its nicotine appears to depress the immune response to malignant growths in exposed tissue. Second hand smoke can also be a cause of lung cancer in nonsmokers. Study showed that the risk of lung cancer also rise with the numbers of cigarette smoke daily.

b. Virus
Some virus such as human papillomavirus (by infecting in the stratified epithelium of the skin or mucous membranes), JC virus (causing immunodeficiency), simian virus (SV40) (a DNA virus that has the potential to cause tumors), BK virus (may cause immunocompromised and the immunosuppressed), and human cytomegalovirus(can be life-threatening for the immunocompromised) can cause lung cancer by affecting the cell cycle and inhibit apoptosis, that allow uncontrolled cell division.

c. Concentration of particles
Only 1% increase of concentration of particles increases the risk of developing a lung cancer by 14%.

d. Heredity
Some people have preposition to the certain diseases, including lung cancer.

e. Occupation
Occupation expose yourself in heavy metals, radiation, asbestos, pollutant environment can increase the risk of lung cancer.

f. Etc.

3. Free radical and lung cancer
As we mentioned inprevious, one puff of cigarette cause countless numbers of free radicals and chain of uncontrolled free radical generation until it is brought to stop. Study found that smoking
a. Activates phagocytes, leading to additional oxidated stress,
b. Increases production of the aberrant 8-hydroxydioxy-guanine, leading to basal DNA damage to circulating lymphocypes and
c. Promotes tumor cell invasion and metastasis, due to other oxidants in the cigarette.

4. Antioxidant and lung cancer
Study from Finland is reported in the American Journal of Epidemiology in September 2002 found
a. Fruit and vegetable
A high fruit and vegetable intake reduced risk of lung cancer by 27 percent
b. Carotene and Lycopene
Eating foods contain high amount of carotene and lycopene decrease the risk of lung cancer by 28%.
c. Vitamin A
Higher blood levels of vitamin A reduced risk by 27 percent
Other studies found
d. Vitamin C
smokers consumed less than 90mg of vitamin C are 1.5 time more likely to develop lung cancer compare to those taking 140 mg per day.
e. Vitamin C and E
Fruits and vegetable contains high amount of vitamin C and E reduce the risk of lung cancer development.
f. Etc.
As they help to prevent the risk of oxidative generation of free radicals by preventing, scavenging, inhibiting them.