Thursday, April 28, 2011

C. Multiple Sclerosis

Multiple Sclerosis is an inflammation of central nervous system disease in which the fatty myelin sheaths around the axons of the brain and spinal cord are deteriorated, leading to impair of proper conduction of nerve impulse.

1. Signs and Symptoms
a. Loss of sensitivity or tingling, pricking or numbness
b. Muscle weakness
c. Muscle spasms,
d. Difficulty in moving
e. Difficulties with coordination and balance
f. Speech problem
g. Problem swallowing
h. Visual problems
i. Fatigue
j. Acute or chronic pain
k. Problem in urination
l. Bowel difficulties
m. Etc.

2. Causes
a. Hereditary
If one of the closed relative in the direct family family has mutiple sclerosis, you are likely to get it. The disease has an overall familial recurrence rate of 20%.

b. Environment factor
b.1. Sunlight and vitamin D
Researcher found that people with decreased sunlight exposure has a higher risk of MS, as a result of decreased vitamin D production and intake.
b.2. Smoking
Researchers from the Harvard School of Public Health reported that current and past smokers with multiple sclerosis were more than three times as likely as patients who had never smoked to have more rapid progression of their disease.
b.3. Occupation
People with occupation with exposure to toxins are at high risk to get MS.

c. Autoimmune disease
Researcher found that MS may be be caused by immune system's attack on blood-brain barrier (BBB), entrance into the CNS, and recognition of the myelin basic protein (MBP) and proteolipid (PLP) induces the stripping of the protective coating of myelin and the eventual formation of plaques. These plaques or lesions can be found throughout the central nervous system, but are most prominently found in the white matter, optic nerve, brain stem, spinal cord, and cerebellum.

d. Infections
Evidence for viruses as a cause of MS, including the presence of immunoglobulins that can be seen when a patient's blood serum gained from blood plasma, is analyzed.

e. Etc.

3. Free radicals and Multiple Sclerosis
a. The DeVine theory suggested that free radical activity is a contributory factors in MS, theory sugested that immune system and free radical cooperation cause the generation of in the myelin itself that deteriorates the myelin shealts.

b. Cooper theory went on step further by suggested that free radicals actually initiate MS, by damaging the myelin, leading to initiating and promoting of activity of T-cells.

c. Etc.

4. Antioxidants and Multiple sclerosis
Antioxidants can help protect the neural tissue from damage that reduce the risk of inflammation result in lessoning the risk of oxidative stress.
a. TNFalpha
An imflammatory cytokine has been associated with MS is inhibited by antioxidants of green tea, and others such as curcumin, quercetin, etc.

b. Melatonin
Melatonin functions as an antioxidant and has the ability to protect neurons from free radicals cause of lipid peroxidation.

c Selenium
Some studied found that the levels of selenium in the blood of people with MS was lower than in that of people without MS.

d. Niacin
Niacin acts as antioxidant is a key to the successful treatment of multiple sclerosis, researchers at Harvard Medical School found that Niacin profoundly prevents the degeneration of demyelinated axons and improves the behavioral deficits.

e. Vitamin D
A study published in a recent issue of the journal Neurology, the group receiving the vitamin D demonstrated a remarkable 41 percent reduction in new MS events with no meaningful side effects.

f. Etc.