Thursday, April 21, 2011

III. Diabetes

Diabetes is defined as a group of metabolic diseases in which a person has high blood sugar, either because the body does not produce enough insulin, or because cells do not respond to the insulin that is produced.
1. Type I and Type II
a. Type I diabetes:
Type I diabetes is defined as a condition of a results from the body's failure to produce insulin, and presently requires the person to inject insulin.

b. Type 2 diabetes:
Type II diabetes is defined as a condition in which cells fail to use insulin properly, sometimes combined with an absolute insulin deficiency.

2. Types of type II diabetes
There are 3 different kinds of type II diabetes
1. If some of the cells in the pancreas die off, it can't produce enough insulin to regulate sugar in the blood stream, then we have type II diabetes that are caused by deficiency of insulin.
Today experts still don't know the causes of how pancreas cells die off, but they suspect that excessive alcohol drinking may be the factor. According to surveys, 70% of patients with type II insulin deficiency diabetes were heavy alcohol users.

2.If the pancreas produces enough insulin, but the receptor sites are clogged up by fat and cholesterol, causing insulin not being pick up at the cell from receptor sites, we have type II insulin sufficient diabetes.
Most cases of type II insulin sufficient diabetes are caused by uncontrolled diet that are high in saturated fat, smoking and excessive alcohol drinking.

3. If the pancreas also produces enough insulin, but allergic responses to certain foods cause resistance of cells to allow insulin to enter blood stream. In other words, if the cells of the muscle and liver resist to take up glucose from the blood causing high concentration of glucose in the blood stream, we have a case of type II insulin resistance diabetes. The foods creating this problem vary from person to person. Most people with type II insulin resistance diabetes seem to be precipitated by overweight, smoking and excessive alcohol drinking.

3. Symptoms of diabetes
Symptoms develop rapidly in type 1 diabetes while in type 2 diabetes they usually develop much more slowly, sometime with out symptoms at all in the early stage.
a. Frequent urination
b. Increased hunger
c. Increased thirst
d. Blurred vision
e. Erectile dysfunction
f. High blood pressure
g. vaginal yeast infections
h. Etc.

4. Free radicals and diabetes
a. Endothelial dysfunction
ROS may alter endothelial function directly by causing the upregulation of adhesion molecules to platelets and leukocytes and decreasing the bioavailability of NO that promotes oxidation of low density lipoprotein (LDL), leading to diabetic vascular disease.

b. Diabetes mellitus
Inability in the regulation of peroxide and transition metal metabolism may result in the establishment of the disease as well as its longer term complications such as atherosclerosis, kidney and nerve damage as well as blindness.

c. Xanthine Oxidase
Xanthine Oxidase is a form of xanthine oxidoreductase that generates reactive oxygen species. Study showed that xanthine oxidase activity increases in type I diabetic animals and that this is a significant cause of the oxidative stress which occurs in the disease.
d. Alloxam
Alloxam can cause type I diabetes by destroying the islet of Langerhans in the pancreas as it gives rise to hydrogen peroxide, superoxide and hydroxyl radicals.

e. AGEs
AGEs or advance glycation end products is produced by elevating levels of free radicals activity due to oxidative stress, causing the decrease of the elasticity of extracecullar compartment, impending the flow of nutrients and waste production.

f. Etc.

5. Antioxidants and diabetes
a. Alloxam
Invitro and vivo study found that hydroxyl radical scavengers, metal chelation and fat soluble antioxidants inhibit the damage caused by Alloxam.

b. Vitamin E
Study also found that vitamin E can prevent the development of Alloxam induced diabetes by administrating butylated hydroxyanisole, an antioxidant consisting of a mixture of two isomeric organic compounds, 2-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyanisole & 3-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyanisole.

c. Vitamin C
Depress levels of vitamin C is found in diabestic. as we know vitamin C compete with glucose in transported in the cell via insulin. low levels of vitamin C also elevates sorbitol, leading to diabetic complication.

d. Alpha-lipoic acid
Alpha-lipoic acid beside lower the levels of blood sugar, it also destroys free radicals that help to reduces symptoms and complication caused by diabetes, including peripheral neuropathy.

e. Etc.