Thursday, April 21, 2011

V. Liver diseases

Liver disease is defined as a broad term describing any single number of diseases affecting the liver, leading to liver inflammation or tissue damage and affects liver function. Beside forming part of immune system, it also converts nutrients into essential blood components, stores vitamins and minerals, etc.

1. Jaundice
Caused by inability of liver in breaking up of the hemoglobin of dead red blood cells, leading to increased levels of bilirubin in the system.
2. A coated tongue
Caused by liver congestion and acidity inside the body.
3. Itchy skin
As a result of toxins accumulation
4. Excessive sweating
As a result from liver congestion
5. Offensive body odor
6. The blood sugar problems
Including craving for sugar, hypoglycaemia and unstable blood sugar levels, and the onset of type 2 diabetes.
The below symptoms due damage to the central nervous system and peripheral nervous system can occur from chronic alcohol abuse cause of liver disease.
7. Depression
8. Mood changes
9. Anger and irritability
10. Poor concentration
The below symptoms due to damage to the kidney system from chronic liver disease.
11. Dark urine
12. Pale stool
13. Etc.

Risk factors
1. Alcohol
Excessive drinking increases the risk of developing alcoholism, cardiovascular disease, malabsorption, chronic pancreatitis, alcoholic liver disease, and cancer. Studies found that drinking moderate amounts of alcohol consumption and decreased risks of stroke, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, osteoporosis, and perhaps an overall decreased mortality rate. It also damages to the nervous system and peripheral nervous system and is capable of damaging every organ and system in the body.
2. Hepatitis B and C
Hepatitis B and C are viral infections that are most often spread through the exchange of unprotected sexual intercourse, bodily fluids, etc.
3. Hereditary
It can be passed from generation to generation.
4. Toxins
Toxins accumulation can overwhelming the liver and cause of the liver cells causing inflammation.
5. Medication
Overdose of certain medication over a certain period of time can cause liver disease.
6. Etc.

Free radicals and Liver disease
1. Alcohol
Researchers found that both acute and chronic alcohol exposure can increase ROS damage or cause peroxidation of essential complex molecules in the cells, including lipid peroxidation, proteins, and DNA.

2. Polyunsaturated fatty acids
Researchers found that the free radical chain reaction not only succeeds in destroying a sufficient amount of membrane polyunsaturated fatty acids, but also give rise of poison shortly causing liver diseases.

3. 8-hydroxyl-2-deoxyguanosine
High levels and chain free radicals reaction found in liver as a result of increased levels of 8-hydroxyl-2-deoxyguanosine which induces the alteration of normal pairing of DNA double helix.

4. Glutathione
Researchers found that inducing oxiadive stress reduces the liver function and glulathione levels but increases in the protein carbonyl levels, leading to protein oxidation.

5. Lipid peroxidation
Oxidative stress also increases the production of free radical by depleting the liver of its antioxidants.

6. Mitochondrial membrane
Excessive consumption can impair the permeability of mitochondrial membrane in the liver cell by depleting the levels of glutathione levels and increasing the rate of apoptosis.

7. Etc.

Antioxidants and liver disease
1. Hepatitis C
Vitamin E is found to have a property of preventing fibrogenesis in patients with hepatitis C.

2. Glutamine and glycine
Glutamine and glycine found in liver help to protect liver cells from environmental toxins, drugs and alcohol as well as toxins produced by the body itself as a result of normal metabolism.

3. Thiols
Thiols play a central yet cooperative role in the antioxidant network. Researcher found that in vivo study, reductases recycle disulfides to thiols, using NADH or NADPH, maintaining favorable oxidoreductive state in the cell and thiol conservation.

4. Synthesis free radical scavenger
In rat study with synthesis free radical reduces the levels of lipid peroxidation.

5. Alpha lipoic acid
Researcher found that alpha lipoic acid decrease the risk of liver disease when come under attacks from toxins and free radicals.

6. Alcohol-induced liver disease (ALD)
There are numbers of experimental data indicating that oxidative stress plays a role in the initiation and progression of alcohol-induced liver disease (ALD) while antioxidants limit or prevent it by scavenging free radicals before they can cause damage to DNA of liver cells.

7. Etc.

Recommended Reading
Rejuvenating Skin Care Recipes
Formulated The Powerful Rejuvenation Properties
Of Common Organic Ingredients.