Tuesday, April 19, 2011

E. Breast cancer

After skin cancer, breast cancer is the most common cancer diagnosed in women in the United States. The rate of breast cancer rates have fallen in recent years, may be due to public awareness and research funding. It is originating from breast tissue of the inner lining of milk ducts or the lobules that supply the ducts with milk.

1. Symptoms
a. Lump or swelling in the armpit
b. Discharge from the nipple
c. Change in the size or shape of a breast
d. Changes to the skin over the breast
e. Inverted or retracted nipple
f. Crusting or scaling on the nipple
g. Pain in the nipple
h. Etc.

2. Risk factors
a. Heredity
Certain genes such as BRCA1 or BRCA2 have been identified to increase the risk of breast cancer.
b. Obesity
Obesity increases the risk in post menopause due to a lack of estrogen, progesterone and HER2 protein expression, while exercise reduce it. Women with over production of bad estrogen during the starting of menstrual cycle are susceptible to be a high risk of breast cancer.
c. Age
Risk of breast cancer for women have never given birth or had their first pregnancy after age 35.
d. Hormone
High levels of estradiol produced by a woman can increase the risk of breast cancer.
e. High fat diet
High fat diet can cause higher exposure to estrogen in fat tissue.
f. Etc.

3. Free radicals and breast cancer
Researcher found that he spread of breast cancer may be caused by damage of the suppression gene or activation of encogenes by hydroxyl free radicals as a result of metabolism from hydro peroxide, probably a by product of the cycling estrogen.

4. Antioxidants and breast cancer
a. Lycopene
Lycopene found abundant in cooked tomatoes as a powerful antioxidants counterbalances the detrimental oxygen free radicals before they can damage cellular structures in the breast as well as other types of cancer.

b. Vitamin A
Vitamin A plays an important role as an antioxidant as it scavenges free radicals by preventing them to become cancerous. including breast tissues but vitamin A have had mixed results in treating cancer according to W. Byers, Ph.D., a professor of oncology and cell biology at Georgetown's Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center as vitamin A may cause some breast cancer cells to form blood vessels brings up the rather disturbing notion that treatment with these drugs may actually stimulate tumor growth,"

c. Vitamin C
As an antioxidant and water soluble vitamin, vitamin C can be easily carry in blood and operate in much of the part of body. By restoring vitamin E, vitamin A and E helps to fight against forming of free radicals by scavenging in inhibiting any cause of oxidation.

d. Vitamin E
It beside is important in protecting muscle weakness, repair damage tissues, lower blood pressure and inducing blood clotting in healing wound, etc, it also is one of powerful antioxidant, by moving into the fatty medium to prevent lipid peroxidation, resulting in lessening the risk of chain reactions by curtailing them before they can starts.

f. Coenzyme Q10
Coenzyme Q10 enhances energy production by promoting the process of the production of ATP then serving as fuel for the cells and acts an antioxidant to prevent the generation of free radicals during this process, thus reducing the risk of breast cancer and other types of cancers.

g. Etc.