Thursday, April 21, 2011

IV. Lung diseases

IV. Lung diseases
Respiratory disease causes over 10% of hospitalizations and over 16% of deaths in Canada and refers to many disorders affecting the lungs, including lung diseases of pleural cavity, bronchial tubes, trachea, upper respiratory tract and the nerves and muscles of breathing.
1. Symptoms
a. A cough that doesn't go away and gets worse over time
b. Chest pain that doesn't go away
c. Pain or discomfort when breathing
d. Coughing up blood
e. Short of breath
f. Wheezing
g. Getting sick with pneumonia and bronchitis
h. Trouble breathing
i. Feeling tired
j. Etc

Risk factors
a. Smoking
More than 80% of people who die from Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease are or were smokers.
b. Surfactant
Researchers found that with widespread use of surfactant increase the risk for chronic lung disease.
c. Asbestos
The risk is greatest for people who worked with asbestos and were exposed for at least several months to visible dust from asbestos fibers are the greatest risk for lung disease.
d. Dietary
Poor nutrition, particularly low levels of antioxidants.
e. Occupations
Occupations required to exposure to toxic chemicals, industrial smoke, dust, or other air pollutants.
f. Etc.

Free Radicals and Lung disease
Free radicals and lung gave been put in depth studies since Lorrain Smith discovered high concentration of oxygen induced pulmonary congestion and developed symptoms of pneumonia in rodent. The implication of oxygen and air pollutants causes of free radical activity have become obvious as our lung is the only organs to take in oxygen from the atmosphere.
1. Emphysema
Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency is an inherited condition. Alpha-1 antitrypsin or AAT, is a protein made in the liver and an inherited condition. It helps to protect the the body' organ from from the harmful effects of other proteins. For what ever reason, but suspects caused by free radicals activity, the protein has been alter and no longer function as it should be, leading to a serious lung disease such as cirrhosis and Emphysema.

2. Asbestos-Related Lung Diseases
Asbestos-related lung diseases are diseases that develop from exposure to asbestos fiber which is a mineral. It cause lung diseases because of silicic acid dissolve from these minerals and highly reactive to oxidative species formed on the mineral surface and lysosomal enzymes are all contribute to Asbestos-Related Lung Diseases.

3. Asthma
Asthma is defined as a condition of inflammatory disorder of the airway. Free radical is suspected as a causative factor as researcher found that high levels of lipid peroxidation in asthma patients if compared with non asthmatics.

4. Bronchiectasis
Bronchiectasis is a condition in which damage to the airways of localized, irreversible dilation of part of the bronchial tree, as the surfaces of the bronchi develop areas of scarring, and the mucus producing glands become enlarged. Research found that the increase levels of hydrogen peroxide of patients with bronchiectasis in stable condition could be an indirect contribution of neutrophilic inflammation, impairment of lung function, and extension and severity of the disease.

5. Bronchitis
Bronchitis is a condition of inflammation of the bronchial tubes. Researchers found that oxidative stress caused by increased free radical production enhances the inflammation already present, leading to a chain cycle of production of more free radicals and inflammation.

6. Emphysema
Emphysema is a type of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) which damages the the air sacs (alveoli) in the lungs. Researchers found that protease, the enzyme that dissolves protein which are kept in check by protease inhibitors, was strengthened by free radicals cause of increase action of the neuteolitic enzyme, resulting of destruction of protein, leading to emphysema.

7. Etc.

Antioxidant and lung diseases
Lung diseases are inflammatory processes caused the generation of increased Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS). The susceptibility of the lung to oxidative injury depends largely of the removal of free radicals before they cause cellular dysfunction and eventual cell death. All the antioxidants below are found in the epithelial lining fluid of the lung, by enhancing the present of these antioxidants will keep the lung strong and protect it from disease.
1. Glutathione
Glutathione found in the epithelial lining fluid not only plays an important role in reducing H2O2 but exceeds catalase in its capacity to eliminate additional varieties of toxic peroxides, such as lipid peroxides which is formed by free radical attack on polyunsaturated lipid membranes and products of lipooxygenase-catalyzed reactions.

2. Superoxide dismutase
Superoxide dismutase or SOD, an ubiquitous enzyme which can be found in the epithelial lining fluid, plays an important role in protecting aerobic cells against oxidative stress by catalyzing O Formula · radicals to H2O2 that is accepted to be an antioxidant may possess prooxidant activity under certain conditions.

3. Catalase
Catalase is a common enzyme found abundant in the epithelial lining fluid with primary function of catalyzing the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide to water and oxygen.

4. Ceruloplasmin
Ceruloplasmin exhibits a copper-dependent oxidase activity as it oxidates Fe2+ (ferrous iron) into Fe3+ (ferric iron).

5. Transferrin
Study suggest that transferrin may provide a source of iron for oxygen free radical-mediated endothelial cell injury and identify a novel mechanism by which endothelial cells may mediate the reduction and release of transferrin-derived iron. (Source)

6. Ascorbate
Reseachers found that ascorbate is virtually nontoxic and used effectively to quench almost all unwanted free radicals and oxidants.

7. Vitamin E
Vitamin E plays an important role in protecting the fat molecules in cell membranes by preventing oxygen damage to the polyunsaturated fat molecules.

8. Etc.