Human aging is a biological process, no one can stop, but delay it. It is possible that one person has a physiological younger than his or her biological if one engages in healthy living life style and eating healthily by increasing the intake of good healthy food such as whole grain, fruits, vegetables, beans and legumes, etc. and reducing the consumption of harmful foods, such as saturated fat, trans fat, artificial ingredients, etc.
Theories of aging
What cause aging? The question that has been asked throughout the human history, but it doesn't seem to get any answer but raises many more unanswered question. While many theories try to answer the question by related aging to tear and wear of the body, others deal with how the organs and systems in the body develop and deteriorate overtime, etc.
1. Somatic mutation theory
In this theory, aging is due to our inherited genes that come directly from our parents. Since the conception occurred, our body cells continue to divide and replication themselves. Since the division and replication are a life long precess at some point, for what ever reason, if cells division and replication can process incorrectly, leading to mutation of incorrect copy of DNA. Although the cause of this incorrect process are unknown, but researchers found that exposures to toxins, radiation or ultraviolet light, artificial ingredients, unhealthy life style, etc. can increase the risk of cells mutation and the cells copied incorrectly can mutate themselves, leading to accumulation of incorrect gene cells that trigger a chain reaction of an auto-catalytic nature in producing more and more fincorrect gene cell, until it finally is brought under controlled, this processes can lead to aging. As an organism, the immune system tries to destroy or scavenger these mutated genes but at some points, it is over whelming, leading chronic age related diseases.
2. Error catastrophe theory
The error catastrophe of aging, originally proposed by Leslie Orgel in 1963. Our body immune system helps to maintain the structural integrity of DNA not only for cell survival but also for the transfer of correct genetic information to the daughter cells. Error catastrophe indicated that alterations DNA and the incorrect placement of amino acids in protein synthesis could result in a progressive degradation aging as a result of these abnormal protein are no longer functioning as chemical passengers or signalers.
3. Protein glycosylation
Protein glycosylation is a result of chemical reaction of glucose with vary proteins, including enzyme, elastin and collagen in the blood. The cross linked protein glycosylation leads to cell to cell adhesion causing stiffness and rigidity of individual cells, reducing the cells function in taking nutrients and expelling waste.
If the cross link protein glycosylation occurs in the elastin and collagen, it will cause brittle skin, causing aging, but it happens in the organs it will be more serious and sometimes life threatening.
4. The neuroendocrine theory
First proposed by Professor Vladimir Dilman and Ward Dean MD, this theory postulates on wear and tear of the neuroendocrine system. In neuroendocrine system, the master pituitary gland secrets hormones to direct other glands in secreting their hormones and works conjunction with the hypothalamus glands form a command post in the nervous system in closely direct the function of most of the body functions.
but as we age, the hypothalamus loses its ability as a hormone regulator as its receptors of which uptake other gland hormones become less sensitive to them, including sex hormones, DHEA, serotonin, melatonin, etc.
As for cortisol, a hormone secreted by the adrenal glands due to stress, is produced with abundance as we age.
5. Immune system decline theory
As we age, our immune system is weakening that cause us become vulnerable to the dangerous pathogens, including microbial and viral invasion. Within the immune system, the thymus glands which play an important role in helping formation of the immune system scavenger that reduces the function of immune system further that allow irregular cell growth cause of aging spot, tumors, cancer, infection, inflammation and onset of chronic illness.
6. Genetic programming theory
Genetic programming theory propose that aging is programmed as the cells cycle in our body are also genetic program since their inception. the explanation is that all the cells are undergoing certain time in division over the a said amount of time before dying, leading to conclusion that people with the long live genetic program live longer than others who do not.
The theory also emphasizes the genetic diseases as a result of genetic programing diminished life span, regardless external and internal influence.
Further refinement of the programmed senescence theory was developed by Bernard Strehler, who proposed that as cells are program to perform specific functions within the organism that cause them to lose some of the ability to duplicate their genetic information, leading to aging.
7. Hayflick limit
The Hayflick limit (or Hayflick Phenomena) theory discovered by Leonard Hayflick and a biologist in 1966. In vitro study, the number of times a fibroblast diploid cells will divide before it stops. The discover is conferring a major hypothesis if the cell division can prolong in a infinite matter without conditions which cause damage of the cells, then organism can liver forever.
Since stem cells can continue to regenerate new cells for the entire lifespan of the organism, without limit, thus constituting a notable exception to the Hayflick limit theory.
Cancer cell in biological aspect, have found a way around the limit by becoming a group of immortalized cells produced from cell division that have no limit as to how many times this immortalized cell division might take place.
8. The telomerase theory
The tolomerrase theory is a continuation of support to the Hayflick limit (or Hayflick Phenomena) theory involved in telomeres and telomerase. Telomeres are the structure at the end of the chromosome. As each time the cell divides, its telomeres is shortened, at certain length, the cell stops division and goes into senescence.
The experiment shows, the cell senescence can be reversed by controlling the genes of telomerase autocatalytic nature, which in turn, promotes the forever cell division capacity
9. The free radical theory
A free radical is any atom or molecule that has a single unpaired electron in an outer shell and highly reactive to react with other cell, which in turn, causes oxidative damage to the enzymes, other protein, unsaturated fatty acid, phospho-lipids, DNA and RNA, etc., leading to aging of the organisms, as a result of widespread damage due to set of a chain reaction auto-catalytically after attacking the lipid bilayers of the cell walls.
10. Other theories
a. Rate of living and lifespan
Rate of living is defined that a bigger organism, the longer it lives with human is one of the exception due to its slower rate of metabolism and lower rate of free radical activity, leading to low levels of age lipid pigment, resulting in longer life span. Experiment show that there 100,000 free radicals hit everyday in rat, comparing 10, 000 in human.
b. Caloric restriction
Caloric restriction hypothesis suggested in a study of young rat showed that if a rat is put into restricted diet with given of necessary nutrients, it lives longer than those were allowed to eat freely. With the result also the same in the old rat, the theory also suggest eating less may cause less toxins in the body that affects the immune system and reduces the risk of hormone change, leading to free radicals cause of aging.
c. Age spots
Age spots are mainly composed of lipofuscin and lipopigment caused by reaction of free radical and peroxidation, leading to the formation of age spot, as a result of oxygen species interact with autophagocytic degradation occurring inside the lysosomes.
d. Protein oxidation
Protein oxidation cay affect protein function in normal and pathological processes as a result of postranslation protein being alter by reduce oxygen species (ROS) cause of damage to enzyme, leading to dysfunction of its role resulting in aging.
e. Fast track of aging
The theory suggest that there are many of diseases and syndromes of which can contribute to faster track to aging
* Hutchison-Gilford syndrome
It is an extremely rare genetic condition wherein symptoms resembling aspects of aging are manifested at an early age. Those born with progeria typically live to thirteen years, although many have been known to live into their late teens and early twenties and rare individuals may even reach their forties due to genes mutation.
It is Adult progeria, an disorder causes the appearance of premature aging. The syndrome does not develop until they reach puberty is caused by autosomal recessive disorder due to alter gene on chromosome 8.
f. Altered genes
Alter genes are the work of Friedman and Johnson 1988 " .... the effect of elevated expression of SIR2 in yeast appears to be conserved in C. elegans (Tissenbaum & Guarente 2001) and Drosophila (Rogina & Helfand 2004), and mutations in genes encoding components of the target of rapamycin (TOR) pathway also extend the lifespan in all four organisms... "
"... It was originally suspected that extension of lifespan by reduced IIS might turn out to be a worm peculiarity. This was because mutations in genes in the IIS pathway can also cause the worms to enter a type of developmental arrest (dauer), normally seen only in response to low food or crowding (Riddle & Albert 1997). Dauer larvae are long lived, and the long life of IIS mutant adult worms could therefore have been a result of re-expression in the adult of the genes that make the dauer larva long lived...."
g. Free radical connection
Free radical is any atom or molecule that has a single unpaired electron in an outer shell and accumulation of free radical damage over time can cause aging. Theory is first proposed by Denham Harman in the 1950s and in the 1970s extended the idea to implicate mitochondrial production of reactive oxygen species into the 1970s. Study showed that nutant strains of the roundworm that are more susceptible to free radicals have shortened lifespans, and those with less susceptibility have longer lifespans
If free radical causes damage to the DNA repaired enzymes, it can increase the risk of unrepaired DNA damage, leading protein synthesis incorrectly. In fact, free radicals can inflict damage to all celsl in body such as endocrine glands, leading to decreasing of hormone secretion, resulting in aging and Kupffer cell in liver, causing endotoxins accumulated in the blood, leading to more free radicals attacks the immune system, etc.
10. Hormone depletion
The researchers found that if an decrease or absence of the pituitary gland hormones mice is given enough amount of pituitary hormones, it lives longer than a control group of normal mice as it stimulates the production of growth and other hormones such as prolactin, adrenocorticotropic hormone, thyroid-stimulating hormone, etc.
Most Common Types of Free Radicals
Free radicals are atoms, molecules, or ions with unpaired electrons through chemical bonds with other atoms or molecules during a chemical reaction. They may have positive, negative or zero charge. The unpaired electrons cause radicals to be highly chemically reactive in the human body, leading to aging and cancers.
1. Hydroxyl radical (OH•)
The hydroxyl radical, is the neutral form of the hydroxide ion (OH–). It is produced from the decomposition of hydroperoxides (ROOH) by the reaction of an elevation in energy level above an arbitrary baseline energy state molecular oxygen with water.
The hydroxyl radical is highly reactive and has a very short in vivo half-life of approx. 10−9 s This makes it a very dangerous compound to the organism. Hydroxyl radical cannot be eliminated by an enzymatic reaction and can damage virtually all types of macromolecules: carbohydrates, nucleic acids (mutations), lipids (lipid peroxidation) and amino acids, that makes it a very danger compound to shorten the life span of human being.
2. Superoxide anion radical (O2–•)
A superoxide anion is a compound that possesses an atom or molecule in which the total number of electrons is not equal to the total number of protons, giving it a net positive or negative electrical charge with the chemical formula O2− with one unpaired electron, leading to the generating of superoxide anion free radical.
Mutations in the gene coding for the NADPH oxidase cause immune deficiency chronic granulomatous disease, leading to extreme susceptibility to infection and pathogenesis of many diseases, including aging.
3. Singlet oxygen
Singlet oxygen is the common name used for the diamagnetic form of molecular oxygen (O2), which is less stable than the normal triplet oxygen. In biological study, species, Singlet oxygen causes oxidation of LDL cholesterol and resultant cardiovascular effects.
Since singlet oxygen with activation by light can produce severe photosensitivity of skin, leading to skin defects.
4. Hydrogen peroxide
Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is the simplest peroxide, a clear liquid, slightly more viscous than water, that appears colorless in dilute solution. It is considered a highly reactive oxygen species because of its strong oxidizing capacity.
A study published in Nature found that hydrogen peroxide plays a role in the immune system by signaling the white blood cells to converge on the site of damage. The process leads to white blood cells did not accumulate at the site of damage, but somewhere else if the gene in production of hydrogen peroxide is altered, causing higher levels of hydrogen peroxide and white blood cells in their lungs accumulation in the lung than healthy people.
5. Lipid peroxyl free radical
Lipid peroxidation is a process in which free radicals steal electrons from the lipids in cell membranes, most often affecting polyunsaturated fatty acids, resulting in damaging to the cell membrane, which consists mainly of lipids, because of chain reaction after initial oxidating by producing even more lipid peroxyl free radicals if not bought under controlled fast enough.
6. Nitric oxide
Nitric oxide is a chemical compound with chemical formula NO. Even though low levels of NO production are important in protecting liver from ischemic damage and contribute to proper smooth muscle contraction and growth, but its free radical and toxic nature can cause DNA damage and inflammation.
7. Alkoxyl radical
Alkoxyl radical which is an alkyl (carbon and hydrogen chain) group singular bonded to oxygen can result in cellular damage caused by oxyfluorfen, a herbicide.
Peroxynitrite is the anion with the formula ONOO−reacted quikly with carbon dioxide, leading to forming of carbonate and nitrogen dioxide radicals. If the two radicals do not recombine to form carbon dioxide and nitrate, they can cause peroxynitrite-related cellular damage.
A. Antioxidant enzymes
Antioxidant enzymes are chemical substances found in plants that can protect the body from damage of free radicals by terminating the chain reactions by removing free radical intermediates and inhibiting other oxidation reactions.
Catalase is an enzyme, found in most living organisms that are exposed to oxygen helped to converse hydrogen peroxide (free radicals) to water and oxygen as a rate of 40 million molecules of hydrogen peroxide to water and oxygen each second, using either an iron or manganese cofactor.
2. Glutathione peroxidase
The function of glutathione peroxidase is to protect the organism from oxidative damage by reducing lipid hydroperoxides, an oxidation of lipid cell membranes which can easily break and form free radicals of the form RO and converting free hydrogen peroxide to oxygen and water.
3. Glutathione reductase
Glutathione reductase, an enzyme reduces pair of sulfur atoms glutathione to the a organosulfur compound form of antioxidant (consisting of three amino acids joined by peptide bonds) which helps to prevent damage of important cellular components caused by free radicals and peroxides.
4. Super oxide dismutase (both Cu-Zn and Mn)
Super oxide dismutase is an important antioxidant defense in nearly all cells exposed to oxygen by converting superoxide into oxygen and hydrogen peroxide depending on the metal cofactor such as both Cu-Zn and Mn.
B. Metals binding proteins
Ceruloplasmin, the major copper-carrying protein in the blood plays a role in iron metabolism. It prevents the oxidation that leads to the forming of oxidation from Fe2+ (ferrous iron) into Fe3+ (ferric iron) by exhibiting a copper-dependent oxidase activity, causing mutations in the ceruloplasmin gene cause of iron overload in the brain, liver, pancreas, and retina.
Ferritin, the protein produced by almost all living organisms, acts as a component to fight against iron deficiency and iron overload, keep in a soluble and non-toxic form and transport it to the body needs, including organs. It enhances the immune system in the presence of an infection or cancer and prevent the infectious agent attempts to bind iron to become free radicals by migrating from the plasma to within cells.
Lactoferrin, a multifunctional protein of the transferrin family, is one of the components of the immune system of the body by fighting against foreign invasion of bacteria and virus and lipid oxidation by inhibiting oxidation in a concentration-dependent manner even at concentrations beyond its capacity.
Metallotheinein, a family of cysteine-rich, low molecular weight proteins helps to bind both physiological heavy metals through the organosulfur compound of its cysteine residues. It also captures harmful superoxide and hydroxyl radicals by liberating the metal ions which were bound to cysteine.
Transferrin is a glycoprotein that binds iron very tightly but reversibly. It enhance the immune system in fighting against infection, inflammation by creating an environment low in free iron that impedes bacteria survival and cell oxidation.
Hemoglobin is the protein molecule in red blood cells that enhances the carrying of oxygen from the lungs to the body's tissues and return CO2 from the tissues to the lungs.
During oxidate stress, the cell membrane is protected by intraerythrocytic hemoglobin from the forming of free radical.
Myoglobin is an iron- and oxygen-binding protein found in the muscle tissue of vertebrates. The binding of oxygen by myoglobin is unaffected by the oxidation or chain of oxidative reaction in the surrounding tissue, thus reducing the free radicals damage caused by oxidate stress.
C. Common antioxidants (scavengers)
Bilirubin is a prosthetic group which helps to break down molecules into smaller units in releasing energy, excreted in bile and urine. It is a cellular antioxidant, by reverting to biliverdin, a green tetrapyrrolic bile pigment, once again when oxidized that inhibits the effects of mutagens.
Carotenoids are organic pigments, occurring in the chloroplasts and chromoplasts of plants and some other photosynthetic organisms like algae, some bacteria.
Beta-Carotene, an organic compound and classified as a terpenoid, a strongly-coloured red-orange pigment in plants and fruits.
a.1. It is not toxic and stored in liver for the production of vitamin A that inhibits cancer cell in experiment. Beta-carotene also neutralize singlet oxygen before giving rise of free radicals which can damage of DNA, leading to improper cell DNA replication, causing cancers.
a.2. Cell communication
Researcher found that beta-carotene enhances the communication between cell can reduce the risk of cancer by making cells division more reliable.
a.3. Immune system
Beta-carotene promotes the immune system in identifying the foreign invasion such as virus and bacteria by increasing the quality of MHC2 protein in maintaining optimal function of white cells.
a.4. Polyunsaturated fat
Researchers found that beta-carotene also inhibits the oxidation of polyunsaturated fat and lipoprotein in the blood that reduce the risk of plaques build up onto the arterial walls, causing heart diseases and stroke.
a.5. There are more benefits of beta-carotene.
Alpha-carotene, one of the most abundant carotenoids in the North American diet, is a form of carotene with a β-ring at one end and an ε-ring at the other. It is the second most common form of carotene which not only protects cells from the damaging effects of free radicals and enhances the immune system in fighting against bacteria and virus invasion, but also stimulates the communication between cells thus preventing irregular cell growth cause of cancers.
Beta cryptoxanthin is an antioxidant, beside helping to prevent free radical damage to cells and DNA but also stimulates the repair of oxidative damage to DNA. it enhances the immune function infighting against inflammatory cause of polyarthritis, and irregular cell growth cause of cancer due to oxidation.
Lutein is one of the most popular North American carotenoids. It is found in greens like kale and spinach as well as the yolk of eggs. Lutein is also found in the human eye. Getting enough lutein in your diet may help to fight off age related macular degeneration, an eye condition.
Researcher has shown that people who do not have enough lutein in their diet will not have enough lutein present in the muscular part of the eye. This is what likely leads to age related macular degeneration that can result in blindness.
Zeaxanthin, a most common carotenoid alcohols found in nature, is one of the two primary xanthophyll carotenoids contained within the retina of the eye. Intake of foods providing zeaxanthin with lower incidence of age-related macular degeneration as a result of its function of reducing the risk oxidative stress.
Lycopene is a red carotene of the carotenoid group that can be found in tomatoes, watermelons, and grapefruits. This powerful antioxidant is believed to be a powerful fighter of prostate cancer. Lycopene has many anti-aging capabilities as well as one of the most powerful antioxidants in the carotenoid group.
Flavonoids also known as Vitamin P and citrin are a yellow pigments having a structure similar to that of flavones occurred in varies plants. it has been in human history for over thousands of years and discovered by A. S. Szent-Gyorgi in 1930. As he used vitamin C and flavonoids to heal the breakage of capillaries, which caused swelling and obstruction of blood flow. Most plants have more than one group or type act as predominate.
Flavonoids process a property as antioxidants. it helps to neutralize many of reactive oxygen species (ROS), including singlet oxygen, hydroxyl and superoxide radicals.
Although nitric oxide is considered a free radical produced by immune system to destroy bacteria and cancerous cells, but when it is over produced, it causes the production peroxynitrite which may attack protein, lipid and DNA, Flavonoids inhibit NO production of peroxynitrite due to reduction of enzyme expression.
Quercetin is a plant-derived flavonoid found in fruits, vegetables, leaves and grains and studies show that quercetin may have anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties as a antioxidant, quercetin scavenges free radicals, which damage cell membranes, cause mutation of cells with tampering DNA.
Rutin is a citrus flavonoid glycoside found in buckwheat and glycoside of the flavonoid quercetin. It inhibits platelet aggregation, decreases the capillary permeability, makes blood thinner and improves circulation. As an antioxidant, it can reduce the cytotoxicity of oxidized LDL cholesterol caused by free radical that lowers the risk of heart diseases.
Catechin is a natural phenol antioxidant plant and natural anti-bacterial substance. Study showed catechin as good free radical scavenging power inhibits ROS production, thus it can be useful to the development of alimentary strategies to prevent OTA-induced cytotoxicity in human.
4. Uric acids
Uric acids may have a potential therapeutic role as an antioxidant becuase of its function of inducing oxidative stress, either through creating reactive oxygen species or inhibiting antioxidant systems.
High uric acid can cause arthritis, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, Metabolic syndrome, kidney stones, etc.
5. Thiols (R-SH)
Chemically, thiol, a organosulfur compound has strong odours resembling that of garlic. They are used as odourants to assist in the detection of natural gas. It presents in the amino acid cysseine which helps to the functioning of enzyme regulation, cell signaling, protein trafficking and control of gene expression. As a sulfide residue, thiol plays an important role in cell function of reversal oxidation by interacting with GSSG resulting in formation of intramucolar protein disulfide and GSG.
6. Coenzyme Q10
Coenzyme Q10 is discovered by Dr. Karl Folfers in 1957, beside promotes the chemical reaction, often by speeding it up or allowing it to proceed under less stringent conditions, it also enhances energy production by promoting the process of the production of ATP then serving as fuel for the cells and acts an antioxidant to prevent the generation of free radicals during this process.
7. Vitamin A, C, E. D.
a. Vitamin A
Vitamin A occurs in the form retinol and is best known for its function in maintaining the health of cell membrane, hair, skin, bone, teeth and eyes. It also plays an important role as an antioxidant as it scavenges free radicals in the lining of the mouth and lungs; prevents its depletion in fighting the increased free radicals activity by radiation; boosts immune system in controlling of free radicals; prevents oxidation of LDL and enhances the productions of insulin pancreas.
b. Vitamin C
Vitamin C beside plays an important role in formation and maintenance of body tissues, it as an antioxidant and water soluble vitamin, vitamin C can be easily carry in blood, operate in much of the part of body. By restoring vitamin E, it helps to fight against forming of free radicals. By enhancing the immune system, it promotes against the microbial and viral and irregular cell growth causes of infection and inflammation.
Vitamin C also is a scavenger in inhibiting pollution cause of oxidation.
c. Vitamin E
Vitamin E is used to refer to a group of fat-soluble compounds that include both tocopherols and tocotrienols discovered by researchers Herbert Evans and Katherine Bishop. It beside is important in protecting muscle weakness, repair damage tissues, lower blood pressure and inducing blood clotting in healing wound, etc, it also is one of powerful antioxidant, by moving into the fatty medium to prevent lipid peroxidation, resulting in lessening the risk of chain reactions by curtailing them before they can starts.
d. Vitamin D
Reseacher found that vitamin D, a group of fat-soluble secosteroids is also a membrane antioxidant, with the ability to inhibit iron-dependent lipid peroxidation in liposomes compared to cholesterol.
Copper, an essential trace element is essential for the absorption and utilization of iron and distributed widely in the body and occurs in liver, muscle and bone. Deficiency of copper can often cause the anemia-like symptoms. However, ingesting too much of it can lead to generator of free radicals that can damage DNA .
1.1. Antimicrobial and viral Copper enhances the immune function in fighting against foreign invasion, such as bacteria and virus, thus reducing the risk of infection and inflammation by utilizing the absorption of oxygen and production of energy within cells.
1.2. Antioxidant enzyme Superoxide dismutase (SOD)
Copper is vital for the making of antioxidant enzyme, superoxide dismutase, an important antioxidant defense in nearly all cells exposed to oxygen by protecting the cell membranes from free radicals. In fact, it outcompetes damaging reactions of superoxide, thus protecting the cell from superoxide toxicity. Research found in experiment, Mice lacking SOD1(Superoxide dismutase [Cu-Zn]) develop a wide range of pathologies, including hepatocellular carcinoma, an acceleration of age-related muscle mass loss,an earlier incidence of cataracts and a reduced lifespan. Mice lacking SOD3(Extracellular superoxide dismutase [Cu-Zn] ) do not show any obvious defects and exhibit a normal lifespan, though they are more sensitive to hyperoxic injury and mice lacking SOD2 (Superoxide dismutase 2, mitochondrial) die before birth. The above result enhances the importance of the presence of copper in improving life span and living health in human as well.
2. glutathione (GSH)
Glutathione (GSH), a polypeptide of glycine, cysteine, and glutamic acid that occurs widely in plant and animal tissues beside is best known for its role in enhancing the immune system in protect our body from bacteria and virus, it also is an antioxidant that helps to prevent damage caused by oxidation of cellular components such as free radicals and peroxides by converting to its oxidized form glutathione disulfide (GSSG), leading to generation of antioxidant enzymes, glutathione peroxidases and peroxiredoxins of which reduces the risk of oxidative DNA damage and subsequently the individual’s risk of cancer susceptibility.
Deficiency of Glutathione (GSH) causes hemolytic anemia, progressive degeneration of the spinal cord, disorders of the peripheral nervous system, diseases of the skeletal muscles, etc.
Intake with vitamin D increases glutathione levels in the brain and appears to be a catalyst for glutathione production.
3. Alpha lipoic acid
Alpha Lipoic Acid (ALA) is an organosulfur compound derived from octanoic acid. It has been used as over-the-counter nutritional supplements to treat a number of diseases and conditions. Alpha Lipoic Acid (ALA) not only is importance in preventing the symptoms of vitamin C and vitamin E deficiency, but also generates dihydrolipoic acid by reduction of antioxidant radicals.
Recent study showed that Alpha lipoic acid may have a therapeutic and anti-aging effects due to modulation of signal transduction and gene transcription, which improve the antioxidant status of the cell.
Manganese is an essential trace nutrient in all forms of life. It is well known for its role in helping the body to maintain healthy skin and bone structure, but also acts as cofactors for a number of enzymes in higher organisms, where they are essential in detoxification of superoxide (O2−, with one unpaired electron) free radicals.
Although superoxide is biologically quite toxic and is deployed by the immune system to kill invading microorganisms by utilizing the enzyme NADPH oxidase. Any Mutations in the gene coding for the NADPH oxidase cause an immunodeficiency syndrome.
Superoxide may contribute to aging via the oxidative damage that it inflicts on cells. In larger amounts, manganese can be poisoning to neurological damage which is sometimes irreversible.
Selenium , a trace mineral plays an important and indirect role as an antioxidant by fulfilling its function as a necessary constituent of glutathione peroxidase and in production of glutathione, that inhibits the damage caused by oxidation of free radical hydrogen peroxide, leading to aging effects.
5.1. Heart health
Since it works synergism with vitamin E, it promotes heart health. Study showed by increasing the levels of glutathion, selenium decreases the risk of LDL oxidation, thus lowering the risk of plaque building up on the arterial walls, blood pressure and heart diseases.
5.2. Immune system
Selenium enhances the immune function that fighting off the attack of AID virus by promoting the function of interleukin 2 and T-cells.
Study showed that levels pf selenium in blood test is associated with high rate of cancer, including skin cancer.
Zinc is an essential mineral that is naturally present in some foods. The ability of zinc ininhibiting oxidative processes has been recognized for many years. Chronic effects, zinc enhances the introduction of metallothioneins, which help to capture the superoxide and hydroxyl radicals due to cysteine residues, resulting in lessening the risk of oxidative stress.
Over acute effects, zinc may reduce the postischemic injury to a variety of tissues and organs by involving the antagonism of copper reactivity as a result from its antioxidant functions.
Cancers and Diseases
Cancer is a class of diseases in which a group of abnormal growth of cells have become progressively worse as it intrudes upon and destroys adjacent tissues, sometimes spreads to other organs in the body via lymph or blood and results in death of the host.
A. Development of cancer
The development of cancer can be divided into three different stages
Initiation is characteristic by irreversible mutation of DNA of a particular cell which does not undergo DNA repair (by enzymes) or undergoes faulty DNA repair, including gene deletion or insertion, gene slices, etc.
In the promotion stage the mutation cells involve in uncontrolled growth and proliferation of mutated cells as it promotes the expression of its mutation gene and in its replication. In time these cells loose their normal abilities and just reproduce.
In the progression stage, the cancerous cells invade nearby tissues and migrate to other tissues via lymph or blood.
B. Antioxidants and cancer
Antioxidants are molecules capable of inhibiting the oxidation of other molecules to prevent damage by free radicals. Free radicals are unstable molecules due to lost of an electron. By maintaining the stable condition to itself, it causes oxidation to others that leads a chain of oxidation reaction, causing more free radicals being produced during the process, until they are brought to stop, causing alternation of DNA, resulting in possible development of cancer.
As we mentioned in the Antioxidants section above, there are many types of antioxidants
which search for free radicals and destroy them, thus preventing further damage to other cells, resulting in lessening the risk of the development of cancers.
C. Risk factors
Environmental exposures can promote the formation of free radicals, including sunshine, radiation, hormones, viruses, bacteria, air pollution, contaminated water and food, and chemical in the workplace, etc.
Bad choices of lifestyle including cigarette smoking, excessive drinking, an unhealthful diet, lack of exercise, or sexual behavior can increase the risk of free radical causes of oxidation.
Although there is no specific guidance but studies show that consuming large quantities of red meat, preservative, and salt and less on vegetables and fruits increase the risk of stomach and colorectal cancers and calorie restriction has been shown to reduce cancer risk for several cancer types in experience in mice.
There are many healthy foods contained antioxidant which can help to reduce the risk of cancers, you can find over hundred of them in the link: healthy food index
All types of tobacco smoking can cause a billion of oxyradicals within a single puff due to its carcinogens , free radicals and chemical, leading to a dozen types of cancer, including lung, mouth, bladder, colon, and kidney cancers. Chewing tobacco and snuff increase the risk of oral cancer, and second-hand smoke increases the risk of lung cancer.
Although it is only account 5% of diseases but in some cases, cancer is caused by an alternative gene that is being passed along from generation to generation, leading to increasing the risk of cancer, not the cancer itself.
4. Random gene change
Random gene change caused by exposing to a particular chemical which are accumulated in great amount as it passed along in cell division and replication can increase their risk for cancer.
5. Faulty Gene Repair Activities
Environmental exposures cause an unwanted molecule to bind to a gene, leading to the genes in faulty production of mutation of repair proteins in the gene repair activities that produce more alternation passing through from generation to generation. .
Some chemotherapy drugs used to treat cancer may increase the risk of second cancers later in life due to its suppression of the immune system in fighting against the forming of free radicals.
Colorectal cancers is the second most common of the visceral cancer and defined as cancers in the digestive system that involve part of the large intestine (colon) and the last several inches of the colon. It starts as a benign noncancerous adenomatous polyps. As of progress through its stages, it can be cancerous.
The symptoms are always seen in abnormal bowel habits as changing in the consistency of stool for more than a couple of weeks as well as bleeding and blood in the stool.
2. Risk factors
Heredity although is not common, but you are high risk to have colorectal cancer if your parent or your sibling had it.
Study showed that people who are 40% overweight above the average have a 35% high risk to develop colorectal cancer.
Colorectal cancer increases the risk with age of over 50. It may be caused by declining function of digestive system in digestive food properly that put pressure to the large intestine.
Would it be true that men are likely to develop colorectal cancer than women?
Diets high in saturated and trans fat have been found to cause colon cancer due to low amount of fiber which are important in assisting the digestive system in waste removal.
3. Free radical and colorectal cancer
Study showed normally cells stop in the cell division or replication cycles if DNA is damaged but if P53 protein is defective in many different types of cancer as a result of cells do not stop dividing when DNA is damaged, leading to genomic instability. Enterococcus faecalis is commensal bacterium inhabiting the gastrointestinal tracts produced extracellular superoxide and hydrogen peroxide free radical in some people. As the free radicals react to molecules, it cause alternation of colonic DNA and if the production become chronic, it may leading to cancers.
4. Antioxidant and colorectal cancer
a. Vitamin E
Study found that using the combination of vitamin E and pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate can stop the colorectal cancer cells by bringing in a chemical arrest the cancer cell activity.
b. Beta carotene
Study showed that beta carotene plays an important role to protect against normal crypt foci, benign and malignant tumors of rat in high fat and variable fiber diet.
c. Salicylic acid
Salicylic acid in fruit and vegetable can inhibit the risk of colorectal cancers.
d. Grape seed extract
Researcher found that antioxidant, proanthocyanidins found in grape seeds significantly inhibits growth of colorectal tumors in both cell cultures and in mice.
E. Breast cancer
After skin cancer, breast cancer is the most common cancer diagnosed in women in the United States. The rate of breast cancer has fallen in recent years, may be due to public awareness and research funding. It is originating from breast tissue of the inner lining of milk ducts or the lobules that supply the ducts with milk.
a. Lump or swelling in the armpit
b. Discharge from the nipple
c. Change in the size or shape of a breast
d. Changes to the skin over the breast
e. Inverted or retracted nipple
f. Crusting or scaling on the nipple
g. Pain in the nipple
2. Risk factors
Certain genes such as BRCA1 or BRCA2 have been identified to increase the risk of breast cancer.
Obesity increases the risk in post menopause due to a lack of estrogen, progesterone and HER2 protein expression, while exercise reduce it. Women with over production of bad estrogen during the starting of menstrual cycle are susceptible to be a high risk of breast cancer.
Risk of breast cancer for women have never given birth or had their first pregnancy after age 35.
High levels of estradiol produced by a woman can increase the risk of breast cancer.
e. High fat diet
High fat diet can cause higher exposure to estrogen in fat tissue.
3. Free radicals and breast cancer
Researcher found that he spread of breast cancer may be caused by damage of the suppression gene or activation of encogenes by hydroxyl free radicals as a result of metabolism from hydro peroxide, probably a by product of the cycling estrogen.
4. Antioxidants and breast cancer
Lycopene found abundant in cooked tomatoes as a powerful antioxidants counterbalances the detrimental oxygen free radicals before they can damage cellular structures in the breast as well as other types of cancer.
b. Vitamin A
Vitamin A plays an important role as an antioxidant as it scavenges free radicals by preventing them to become cancerous. including breast tissues but vitamin A have had mixed results in treating cancer according to W. Byers, Ph.D., a professor of oncology and cell biology at Georgetown's Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center as vitamin A may cause some breast cancer cells to form blood vessels brings up the rather disturbing notion that treatment with these drugs may actually stimulate tumor growth,"
c. Vitamin C
As an antioxidant and water soluble vitamin, vitamin C can be easily carry in blood and operate in much of the part of body. By restoring vitamin E, vitamin A and E helps to fight against forming of free radicals by balancing the levels of oxidants and antioxidants thus preventing DNA damage that lead to cancer development.
d. Vitamin E
It beside is important in protecting muscle weakness, repair damage tissues, lower blood pressure and inducing blood clotting in healing wound, etc, it also is one of powerful antioxidant, by moving into the fatty medium to prevent lipid peroxidation, resulting in lessening the risk of chain reactions by curtailing them before they can starts.
f. Coenzyme Q10
Coenzyme Q10 enhances energy production by promoting the process of the production of ATP then serving as fuel for the cells and acts an antioxidant to prevent the elevation of lipid peroxide concentration in the tissues, thus reducing the risk of breast cancer and other types of cancers.
F. Prostate cancer
Prostate cancer is a form of cancer that develops in the prostate, a gland in the male reproductive system. Prostate cancer usually grows slowly and can often be cured or managed successfully, however in the aggressive case, The cancer cells can spread from the prostate to other parts of the body, particularly the bones and lymph nodes
a. Painful or burning sensation in urination
b. Inability to urinate or difficulty in starting urine stream
c. Inability to empty bladder
d. Blood in urine
e. Continual pain in the lower back, pelvis or upper thighs
f. Frequent, urgent need to urinate
g. Erectile dysfunction
h. Problems during sexual intercourse
2. Risk factros
Risk of prostate cancer increases with age. it may be due to wear and tear or inability of the immune function in fighting against oxidation of the prostate cells.
Genetic alternation genes may contribute to prostate cancer risk, as suggested by associations with race, family, and specific gene variants. Prostate cancer occurs about 60% more often in African American men than in white American.
Diet high in saturated and trans fat may be a contributing factor of prostate cancer, as the disease is much more common in countries where meat and dairy products are dietary staples.
In 2006, researchers found a Xenotropic MuLV-related virus or XMRV, with human prostate tumors.
e. Sexual transmitting diseases
Infection caused by infection with the sexually transmitted infections chlamydia, gonorrhea, or syphilis seems to increase risk of prostate cancer.
2. Free radical and prostate cancer
Prostate cancer involves a malignant tumor growth within the prostate gland. Recent study showed that chronic inflammation of the prostate gland and high free radical load contribute to DNA damage and genomic instability, leading to cancerous or benign tumors, due to oxidative stress provoked by toxins, dietary fat consumption, or high level of androgens, etc.. Cancerous tumours can grow through your prostate and spread to other parts of your body through the bloodstream or the lymph system, where they may grow and form secondary tumours.
3. Antioxidants and prostate cancer
In a randomized study, 15 of 26 men scheduled for radical prostatectomy for organ confined malignancy were given lycopene supplements, 15 mg twice a day for over the 3 weeks were found to have smaller volume tumors and surgical margins were less likely to be positive.
b. The manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD)
The manganese superoxide dismutase MnSOD is the cells primary defense against free radical mediated damage by encoding an antioxidant enzyme (SOD2).
c. Vitamin C
Dr. J. Leuchaeur, who successfully works with prostate cancer patients, recommends as much as 60 grams (60,000mgs) per day for prostate cancer along with a Primitive Diet. This has been used as the entire prostate treatment as vitamin C helped to prevent the free radical damage that is associated with cancer.
d. Vitamin E
Vitamin E beside stops the production of ROS formed when fat undergoes oxidation, it also decreases incidence of prostate cancer.
By strengthening growth regulatory signsls between cells and preventing damage prostate cells from reproducing and forming tumors.
f. Selenium and vitamin E
The Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT) is taking place in the United States, Puerto Rico, and Canada. SELECT is trying to find out if taking selenium and/or vitamin E supplements can prevent prostate cancer in men age 50 or older. by protecting cells from damage caused by unstable molecules.
G. lung cancer
Lung cancer is a disease caused by uncontrolled cell growth in tissues of the lung. This growth may lead to spreading of a disease from one part to another non-adjacent part of the body and responsible over 1 million deaths worldwide annually.
a. A cough that gets worse or doesn’t go await.
b. Constantly cough in a smoker or a former smoker should raise concern for lung cancer.
c. Breathing problems
d. Wheezing or hoarseness due to blockage or inflammation in the lungs
e. Constant chest pain, especially when you cough
f. Coughing up blood occurs in a significant number of people having lung cancer
g. Frequent chest infections, such as pneumonia, or an infection that doesn’t go away
h. Fatigue (feeling very tired all the time)
j. Unexplained weight loss
2. Risk factors
Cigarette contains over 60 difference chemicals which can cause cancers. Its nicotine appears to depress the immune response to malignant growths in exposed tissue. Second hand smoke can also be a cause of lung cancer in nonsmokers. Study showed that the risk of lung cancer also rise with the numbers of cigarette smoke daily.
Some virus such as human papillomavirus (by infecting in the stratified epithelium of the skin or mucous membranes), JC virus (causing immunodeficiency), simian virus (SV40) (a DNA virus that has the potential to cause tumors), BK virus (may cause immunocompromised and the immunosuppressed), and human cytomegalovirus(can be life-threatening for the immunocompromised) can cause lung cancer by affecting the cell cycle and inhibit apoptosis, that allow uncontrolled cell division.
c. Concentration of particles
Only 1% increase of concentration of particles increases the risk of developing a lung cancer by 14%.
Some people have preposition to the certain diseases, including lung cancer.
Occupation expose yourself in heavy metals, radiation, asbestos, pollutant environment can increase the risk of lung cancer.
3. Free radical and lung cancer
As we mentioned in previous, one puff of cigarette cause countless numbers of free radicals and chain of uncontrolled free radical generation until it is brought to stop. Study found that smoking
a. Activates phagocytes, leading to additional oxidated stress,
b. Increases production of the aberrant 8-hydroxydioxy-guanine, leading to basal DNA damage to circulating lymphocypes and
c. Promotes tumor cell invasion and metastasis, due to other oxidants in the cigarette.
4. Antioxidant and lung cancer
Study from Finland is reported in the American Journal of Epidemiology in September 2002 found
a. Fruit and vegetable
A high fruit and vegetable intake reduced risk of lung cancer by 27 percent
b. Carotene and Lycopene
Eating foods contain high amount of carotene and lycopene decrease the risk of lung cancer by 28%.
c. Vitamin A
Higher blood levels of vitamin A reduced risk by 27 percent
Other studies found
d. Vitamin C
Smokers consumed less than 90mg of vitamin C are 1.5 time more likely to develop lung cancer compare to those taking 140 mg per day.
e. Vitamin C and E
Fruits and vegetable contains high amount of vitamin C and E reduce the risk of lung cancer development.
II. Cardiovascular disease or hear diseases are the class of diseases that involve disorder of the heart or blood vessels (arteries and veins),including coronary heart disease (heart attacks), cerebrovascular disease (stroke), raised blood pressure (hypertension), peripheral artery disease, rheumatic heart disease, congenital heart disease and heart failure. Cardiovascular disease kills more than 2,000 Americans everyday and approximately 60 million Americans have heart disease.
Atherosclerosis is defined as a condition in which fatty material accumulated along the walls of arteries, leading to thickening or hardening of arterial walls result in blockage eventual of the arteries
a. Leg cramps during walking
Leg cramps during exercise might be caused by dehydration. It is important to drink a lot of fluid during exercise. Leg cramps occur when the muscle suddenly and forcefully contracts. The most common muscles to contract in this manner are muscles that cross two joints. Leg cramps during walking might be an indication of heart disease caused by arteries in your leg being clogged up by cholesterol in result of not enough oxygen being delivered to the cells in your leg. If this symptom persists, please consult with your doctor.
b. Chest pain
Chest pain is caused by blood vessels in the heart temporarily being blocked up. It is also caused by inadequate oxygen supply to the heart muscle or coronary . The persistence of chest pain would be an early indication of heart diseases.
c. Shortness of breath
Shortness of breath (dyspnea) is the major symptom of the left ventricular insufficiency. People with shortness of breath are four times more likely to die from a heart disease related cause than individuals without any symptoms.
People see sparkling zigzag lines or loss of vision before a migraine attack may be at particular risk of future cardiovascular problems. Generally headaches do not cause heart diseases but a sudden, explosive onset of great pain might be.
Dizziness can have many causes including low blood count, low iron in the blood stream and other blood disorders, dehydration, and viral illnesses. Since there are many different conditions that can produce these symptoms, anybody experiencing episodes of severe headaches or dizziness ought to be checked by your doctor.
Palpitations is an extremely common symptom of heart disease. Palpitations are skips in the heart beats and irregular heart beats.
h. Loss of consciousness
It is a common symptom, most people pass out at least once in their lives. However, sometimes loss of consciousness indicates a dangerous or even life-threatening condition such as heart disease so when loss of consciousness occurs it is important to figure out the cause.
2. Risk factors
b. Dyslipoproteinemia (unhealthy patterns of serum proteins carrying fats & cholesterol)
c. High serum concentration of low-density lipoprotein (LDL)
d. Low serum concentration of functioning high density lipoprotein (HDL)
e. An LDL:HDL ratio greater than 3:1
f. Tobacco smoking, increases risk by 200% after several pack years
h. Elevated serum C-reactive protein concentrations
i. Vitamin B6 deficiency
3. Free radicals and Atherosclerosis
Atherosclerosis develops as a result of oxidation of low-density lipoprotein molecules (LDL) or bad cholesterol by free radicals, including reactive oxygen species (ROS). As the oxidated LDL move in the blood stream and comes to contact and damage the arterial wall, the immune immune system by sending specialized white blood cells (macrophages and T-lymphocytes) to absorb the oxidized-LDL forming specialized foam cells. If the white blood cells can not process the oxidized-LDL, they ultimately grow then rupture thus depositing a greater amount of oxidized cholesterol into the artery wall that triggers more white blood cells, continuing the cycle. If the artery becomes inflamed, it causes cholesterol plaque buildup over the affected area, leading to narrowing of the artery that reduces the blood flow and increases blood pressure.
4. Antioxidants and Atherosclerosis
a. Bioflavonoids or vitamin P
Discovered by Szent-Gyorgyi and his colleagues back in the 1930`s. In Laboratory tests, B
bioflavonoids help to reduce the fragility and “permeability” in capillaries and prevent the clotting up of arterial as a result of oxidation.
b. Vitamins C and E, beta-carotene
Recent research findings have suggested that antioxidants such as vitamin C, E and beta carotene play an important role in the prevention of atherosclerosis. Data from animal studies showed they are able to prevent oxidative modification of low density lipoproteins (LDL).
Alpha-tocopherol, a antioxidant found abundant in vitamin E, helps to decrease lipid peroxidation and platelet aggregation, adhesion and inflammatory. Epidemiological studies suggest that low levels of antioxidants are associated with increased risk for cardiovascular disease.
d. Vitamin C and E
Studies showed in take of 500mg of vitamin C and 400 IU of vitamin E helps to retard the progression of coronary atherosclersis.
Antioxidant chorophyll in the green algae shows to inhibit the chemical cadmium of smoking, by preventing from oxidation that cause building up of plaque along the walls of arteries.
Ischemia is defined as a condition of restriction or interruption of blood supply to the body organs, as a result of plague builds up in the arteries, causing damage or dysfunction of the arterial walls. 1. Symptoms
a. Irregular or rapid pulse
b. Abnormal heart palpitations
d. Reduced or excessive urine output
e. Difficulty breathing when you lay down
f. Leg swelling and weight gain from heart failure
g. Weakness ,fatigue and faintness
h. Chest pain.
2. Risk factors
Cigarette contains high levels of cadmium, inhaling the chemical during smoking or second hand smoke can cause building up of plaque along to the arterial walls as a result of oxidation.
Obesity increases the risk of ischemia as it is normally associated with high levels of cholesterol, high blood pressure.
A history of heart attack or coronary artery disease of a family, can increase the risk of ischemia to the members.
Hypertension can be inherited or bad diet with a lot of salts and aging. the disease can damage arteries that feed your heart by accelerating atherosclerosis.
e. High levels of cholesterol and triglyceride
High levels of bad cholesterols and triglyceride partial block the blood flow in the vessels, it not only increases the risk of high blood pressure but also the risk of ischemia if the blood circulation disimish.
Diabetes cause high levels of blood sugar in the blood stream which can cause the thinkening of the blood thus, reducing the blood flow to the body and increase the risk of blood being blocked.
3. Free radicals and ischemia
Researcher found that free radicals generated during oxidated stress through a series of interacting pathways in cardiac myocytes and endothelial cells and triggers subsequent leukocyte chemotaxis and inflammation is greatly increased in the post-ischemic heart and serves as a critical central mechanism of post-ischemic injury.
Nitric oxide (NO), one of the antioxidant and peroxynitrite can inhibit pathways of oxygen radical generation, and, in turn, oxidants can inhibit NO synthesis from NOS.
4. Antioxidants and ischemia
a. Nitric oxide (NO)
Nitric oxide (NO), one of the antioxidant and peroxynitrite can inhibit pathways of oxygen radical generation, and, in turn, oxidants can inhibit NO synthesis from NOS.
b. glutathione and vitamin E
Reduced form of glutathione may act as a first line of defense against oxidative stress during ischemia–reperfusion while vitamin E may act later on during severe oxidative stress by rendering resistance to the heart against the ischemic–reperfusion injury
c. 2-dithiole-3-thione (D3T)
Researcher found that in rat cardiac H9c2 cells, D3T and time-dependent induction of a number of cellular antioxidants and phase 2 enzymes, including catalase, reduced glutathione (GSH), GSH peroxidase, glutathione reductase (GR), GSH S-transferase (GST), and NADH:quinone oxidoreduc- tase-1 (NQO1) help to protect against H9c2 cell injury caused by various oxidants and simulated ischemia-reperfusion. D3T pretreatment also resulted in decreased intracellular accumulation of reactive oxygen in H9c2 cells after exposure to the oxidants as well as simulated ischemia-reperfusion.
Deficiency of of a co-enzyme selenium, which is required in maintaining the glutathione redox cycle, also promote more susceptible to oxidative injure.
Diabetes is defined as a group of metabolic diseases in which a person has high blood sugar, either because the body does not produce enough insulin, or because cells do not respond to the insulin that is produced.
1. Type I and Type II
a. Type I diabetes:
Type I diabetes is defined as a condition of a results from the body's failure to produce insulin, and presently requires the person to inject insulin.
b. Type 2 diabetes:
Type II diabetes is defined as a condition in which cells fail to use insulin properly, sometimes combined with an absolute insulin deficiency.
2. Types of type II diabetes
There are 3 different kinds of type II diabetes
1. If some of the cells in the pancreas die off, it can't produce enough insulin to regulate sugar in the blood stream, then we have type II diabetes that are caused by deficiency of insulin.
Today experts still don't know the causes of how pancreas cells die off, but they suspect that excessive alcohol drinking may be the factor. According to surveys, 70% of patients with type II insulin deficiency diabetes were heavy alcohol users.
2.If the pancreas produces enough insulin, but the receptor sites are clogged up by fat and cholesterol, causing insulin not being pick up at the cell from receptor sites, we have type II insulin sufficient diabetes.
Most cases of type II insulin sufficient diabetes are caused by uncontrolled diet that are high in saturated fat, smoking and excessive alcohol drinking.
3. If the pancreas also produces enough insulin, but allergic responses to certain foods cause resistance of cells to allow insulin to enter blood stream. In other words, if the cells of the muscle and liver resist to take up glucose from the blood causing high concentration of glucose in the blood stream, we have a case of type II insulin resistance diabetes. The foods creating this problem vary from person to person. Most people with type II insulin resistance diabetes seem to be precipitated by overweight, smoking and excessive alcohol drinking.
3. Symptoms of diabetes
Symptoms develop rapidly in type 1 diabetes while in type 2 diabetes they usually develop much more slowly, sometime with out symptoms at all in the early stage.
a. Frequent urination
b. Increased hunger
c. Increased thirst
d. Blurred vision
e. Erectile dysfunction
f. High blood pressure
g. vaginal yeast infections
2. Free radicals and diabetes Secondary condition
a. Endothelial dysfunction
ROS may alter endothelial function directly by causing the upregulation of adhesion molecules to platelets and leukocytes and decreasing the bioavailability of NO that promotes oxidation of low density lipoprotein (LDL), leading to diabetic vascular disease.
b. Diabetes mellitus
Inability in the regulation of peroxide and transition metal metabolism may result in the establishment of the disease as well as its longer term complications such as atherosclerosis, kidney and nerve damage as well as blindness.
c. Xanthine Oxidase
Xanthine Oxidase is a form of xanthine oxidoreductase that generates reactive oxygen species. Study showed that xanthine oxidase activity increases in type I diabetic animals and that this is a significant cause of the oxidative stress which occurs in the disease.
Alloxam can cause type I diabetes by destroying the islet of Langerhans in the pancreas as it gives rise to hydrogen peroxide, superoxide and hydroxyl radicals.
AGEs or advance glycation end products is produced by elevating levels of free radicals activity due to oxidative stress, causing the decrease of the elasticity of extracecullar compartment, impending the flow of nutrients and waste production.
3. Antioxidants and diabetes
Invitro and vivo study found that hydroxyl radical scavengers, metal chelation and fat soluble antioxidants inhibit the damage caused by Alloxam.
b. Vitamin E
Study also found that vitamin E can prevent the development of Alloxam induced diabetes by administrating butylated hydroxyanisole, an antioxidant consisting of a mixture of two isomeric organic compounds, 2-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyanisole & 3-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyanisole.
c. Vitamin C
Depress levels of vitamin C is found in diabestic. as we know vitamin C compete with glucose in transported in the cell via insulin. low levels of vitamin C also elevates sorbitol, leading to diabetic complication.
d. Alpha-lipoic acid
Alpha-lipoic acid beside lower the levels of blood sugar, it also destroys free radicals that help to reduces symptoms and complication caused by diabetes, including peripheral neuropathy.
IV. Lung diseases
Respiratory disease causes over 10% of hospitalizations and over 16% of deaths in Canada and refers to many disorders affecting the lungs, including lung diseases of pleural cavity, bronchial tubes, trachea, upper respiratory tract and the nerves and muscles of breathing.
a. A cough that doesn't go away and gets worse over time
b. Chest pain that doesn't go away
c. Pain or discomfort when breathing
d. Coughing up blood
e. Short of breath
g. Getting sick with pneumonia and bronchitis
h. Trouble breathing
i. Feeling tired
More than 80% of people who die from Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease are or were smokers.
Researchers found that with widespread use of surfactant increase the risk for chronic lung disease.
The risk is greatest for people who worked with asbestos and were exposed for at least several months to visible dust from asbestos fibers are the greatest risk for lung disease.
Poor nutrition, particularly low levels of antioxidants.
Occupations required to exposure to toxic chemicals, industrial smoke, dust, or other air pollutants.
Free Radicals and Lung disease
Free radicals and lung gave been put in depth studies since Lorrain Smith discovered high concentration of oxygen induced pulmonary congestion and developed symptoms of pneumonia in rodent. The implication of oxygen and air pollutants causes of free radical activity have become obvious as our lung is the only organs to take in oxygen from the atmosphere.
Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency is an inherited condition. Alpha-1 antitrypsin or AAT, is a protein made in the liver and an inherited condition. It helps to protect the the body' organ from from the harmful effects of other proteins. For what ever reason, but suspects caused by free radicals activity, the protein has been alter and no longer function as it should be, leading to a serious lung disease such as cirrhosis and Emphysema.
2. Asbestos-Related Lung Diseases
Asbestos-related lung diseases are diseases that develop from exposure to asbestos fiber which is a mineral. It cause lung diseases because of silicic acid dissolve from these minerals and highly reactive to oxidative species formed on the mineral surface and lysosomal enzymes are all contribute to Asbestos-Related Lung Diseases.
Asthma is defined as a condition of inflammatory disorder of the airway. Free radical is suspected as a causative factor as researcher found that high levels of lipid peroxidation in asthma patients if compared with non asthmatics.
Bronchiectasis is a condition in which damage to the airways of localized, irreversible dilation of part of the bronchial tree, as the surfaces of the bronchi develop areas of scarring, and the mucus producing glands become enlarged. Research found that the increase levels of hydrogen peroxide of patients with bronchiectasis in stable condition could be an indirect contribution of neutrophilic inflammation, impairment of lung function, and extension and severity of the disease.
Bronchitis is a condition of inflammation of the bronchial tubes. Researchers found that oxidative stress caused by increased free radical production enhances the inflammation already present, leading to a chain cycle of production of more free radicals and inflammation.
Emphysema is a type of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) which damages the the air sacs (alveoli) in the lungs. Researchers found that protease, the enzyme that dissolves protein which are kept in check by protease inhibitors, was strengthened by free radicals cause of increase action of the neuteolitic enzyme, resulting of destruction of protein, leading to emphysema.
Antioxidant and lung diseases
Lung diseases are inflammatory processes caused the generation of increased Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS). The susceptibility of the lung to oxidative injury depends largely of the removal of free radicals before they cause cellular dysfunction and eventual cell death. All the antioxidants below are found in the epithelial lining fluid of the lung, by enhancing the present of these antioxidants will keep the lung strong and protect it from disease.
Glutathione found in the epithelial lining fluid not only plays an important role in reducing H2O2 but exceeds catalase in its capacity to eliminate additional varieties of toxic peroxides, such as lipid peroxides which is formed by free radical attack on polyunsaturated lipid membranes and products of lipooxygenase-catalyzed reactions.
2. Superoxide dismutase
Superoxide dismutase or SOD, an ubiquitous enzyme which can be found in the epithelial lining fluid, plays an important role in protecting aerobic cells against oxidative stress by catalyzing O · radicals to H2O2 that is accepted to be an antioxidant may possess prooxidant activity under certain conditions.
Catalase is a common enzyme found abundant in the epithelial lining fluid with primary function of catalyzing the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide to water and oxygen.
Ceruloplasmin exhibits a copper-dependent oxidase activity as it oxidates Fe2+ (ferrous iron) into Fe3+ (ferric iron).
Study suggest that transferrin may provide a source of iron for oxygen free radical-mediated endothelial cell injury and identify a novel mechanism by which endothelial cells may mediate the reduction and release of transferrin-derived iron. (Source)
Reseachers found that ascorbate is virtually nontoxic and used effectively to quench almost all unwanted free radicals and oxidants.
7. Vitamin E
Vitamin E plays an important role in protecting the fat molecules in cell membranes by preventing oxygen damage to the polyunsaturated fat molecules.
V. Liver diseases
Liver disease is defined as a broad term describing any single number of diseases affecting the liver, leading to liver inflammation or tissue damage and affects liver function. Beside forming part of immune system, it also converts nutrients into essential blood components, stores vitamins and minerals, etc.
Caused by anability of liver in breaking up of the hemoglobin of dead red blood cells, leading to increased levels of bilirubin in the system.
2. A coated tongue
Caused by liver congestion and acidity inside the body.
3. Itchy skin
As a result of toxins accumulation
4. Excessive sweating
As a result from liver congestion
5. Offensive body odor
6. The blood sugar problems
Including craving for sugar, hypoglycaemia and unstable blood sugar levels, and the onset of type 2 diabetes.
The below symptoms due damage to the central nervous system and peripheral nervous system can occur from chronic alcohol abuse cause of liver disease.
8. Mood changes
9. Anger and irritability
10. Poor concentration
The below symptoms due to damage to the kidney system from chronic liver disease.
11. Dark urine
12. Pale stool
Excessive drinking increases the risk of developing alcoholism, cardiovascular disease, malabsorption, chronic pancreatitis, alcoholic liver disease, and cancer. Studies found that dinking moderate amounts of alcohol consumption and decreased risks of stroke, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, osteoporosis, and perhaps an overall decreased mortality rate. It also damages to the nervous system and peripheral nervous system and is capable of damaging every organ and system in the body.
2. Hepatitis B and C
Hepatitis B and C are viral infections that are most often spread through the exchange of unprotected sexual intercourse, bodily fluids, etc.
It can be passed from generation to generation.
Toxins accumulation can overwhelming the liver and cause of the liver cells causing inflammation.
Overdose of certain medication over a certain period of time can cause liver disease.
Free radicals and Liver disease
Reseachers found that both acute and chronic alcohol exposure can increase ROS damage or cause peroxidation of essential complex molecules in the cells, including lipid peroxidation, proteins, and DNA.
2. Polyunsaturated fatty acids
Researchers found that the free radical chain reaction not only succeeds in destroying a sufficient amount of membrane polyunsaturated fatty acids, but also give rise of poison shortly causing liver diseases.
High levels and chain free radicals reaction found in liver as a result of increased levels of 8-hydroxyl-2-deoxyguanosine which induces the alteration of normal pairing of DNA double helix.
Researchers found that inducing oxiadive stress reduces the liver function and glulathione levels but increases in the protein carbonyl levels, leading to protein oxidation.
5. Lipid peroxidation
Oxidative stress also increases the production of free radical by depleting the liver of its antioxidants.
6. Mitochondrial membrane
Excessive consumption can impair the permeability of mitochondrial membrane in the liver cell by depleting the levels of glutathione levels and increasing the rate of apoptosis.
Antioxidants and liver disease
1. Hepatitis C
Vitamin E is found to have a property of preventing fibrogenesis in patients with hepatitis C.
2. Glutamine and glycine
Glutamine and glycine found in liver help to protect liver cells from environmental toxins, drugs and alcohol as well as toxins produced by the body itself as a result of normal metabolism.
Thiols play a central cooperative role in the antioxidant network. Researcher found that in vivo study, reductases recycle disulfides to thiols, using NADH or NADPH, maintaining favorable oxidoreductive state in the cell and thiol conservation.
4. Synthesis free radical scavenger
In rat study with synthesis free radical reduces the levels of lipid peroxidation.
5. Alpha lipoic acid
Researcher found that alpha lipoic acid decrease the risk of liver disease when come under attacks from toxins and free radicals.
6. Alcohol-induced liver disease (ALD)
There are numbers of experimental data indicating that oxidative stress plays a role in the initiation and progression of alcohol-induced liver disease (ALD) while antioxidants limit or prevent it by scavenging free radicals before they can cause damage to DNA of liver cells.
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VI. Kidney diseases
Kidney diseases is defined as a health condition due to damage to the nephrons. this damage overtimes reduces the kidneys ability in waste removal, resulting in kidney failure or renal failure.
a. Burning or difficulty during urination
b. high blood pressure
d. Loss of appetite
e. Persistence of thirst
f. Weight loss
g. Pain in the small of the back just below the ribs
h. Frequent urination
i. Puffiness around the eyes, swelling of the hands and feet
2. Risk factors
Almost 40% of new dialysis patients have diabetes, making it the fastest growing risk factor for kidney disease. High levels of sugar in the bloodstream overtimes damage tiny blood vessels in the kidneys, resulting in resulting the kidney ability to filter the blood properly.
b. High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)
High Blood Pressure overtimes can cause damage of the blood vessels, leading to damage of the kidney blood vessels that reduces the function of kidney function of removing wastes and extra fluid from the body.
- c. Blockage of urinary tract system
- Blockage of urinary tract system due to birth defect or infection can cause the urine flow back to the kidney, resulting in kidney disease overtime.
- d. Painkillers
- Researchers found that heavy users of aspirin or paracetamol for a prolong period of time over 300 grams a year was linked to a condition known as small, indented and calcified kidneys (SICK).
Researcher found that syndrome of heroin-associated nephropathy presents with massive proteinuria and progresses rapidly supports the premise that heroin or its vehicles elicits immunologically mediated renal damage.
Several studies suggest that chronic inflammation can predispose advanced chronic kidney disease patients to a catabolic state leading to worsening of protein-energy wasting by both increasing protein breakdown and decreasing protein synthesis
g. Family History of Kidney Disease
If one or more family members in you family have CKD, are on dialysis, you are at higher risk.
h. Premature Birth
A study, published on November 19, 2008 in the Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, links premature birth with a form of kidney disease. Some of these individuals may develop kidney problems later in life.
Kidney function is reduced with age, the older you are, the greater your risk.
j. Certain Diseases
Certain diseases such as lupus erythematosus, sickle cell anemia, cancer, AIDS, hepatitis C, etc. can increase the risk of kidney disease.
3. Free radicals and kidney diseases
The evidence of free radicals damage plays an important role in the pathogenesis of may kind of kidney disease. Researchers found that as we age, production of the levels of potent plutathione is reduced while reduced gluyathoine increased, leading to serious kidney disease compared with the younger population.
In other study, researchers also found that monocytes and neutrophils used by immune system in fighting against foreign invasion can cause damage to glomerulus in filtering out metabolic and waste.
4. Antioxidants and kidney diseases
Antioxiants play the essential role in assisting the body in reducing the risk of kidney disease. One study showed that catalase was able to reduce 75% of glomerular injure.
a. Vitamin E and probucol
In rat sudy, vitamin E and anti-hyperlipidemic drug probucol suppress MC proliferation and glomerular sclerosis in models of glomerular disease in rats study, that suggest antioxidants may be a promising intervention to prevent progression of kidney disease.
b. Dimethyl sulfoxide
A experiment with renal epithelial cells grown in culture with condition of which oxygen availability was greatly reduced then oxygen was reintroduced, leading to increased oxidative stress. When dimethyl sulfoxide was introduced, the level of oxidative stress was decreased.
c. Green tea
In same study, researcher found that antioxidants of green tea introduced also showed inhibition of oxidative stress.
Single-kidney hemodynamics and function at baseline and during vasoactive challenge were quantified using electron-beam computed tomography in pigs after 12 wk of experimental atherosclerotic renovascular disease (RVD) found that basal renal blood flow (RBF) and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) were similarly decreased in the stenotic kidney of both atherosclerotic renovascular disease (RVD) groups but significantly improved in RVD+Vitamins.
e. Chronic renal failure
In a study, patients with chronic renal failure who express the elevation of malonaldehyde, a depress levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids and low level of vitamin E were placed on a low protein diet, with amino and keto acids and vitamin A, C, E showed reversal afterward.
VII. Neurodegenrative diseases
Neurodegeneration is defined as a health conditions of the progressive loss of structure or function of neurons, including death of neurons, including Parkinson’s, Alzheimer’s, and Huntington’s diseases due to genetic mutations, most of which are located in completely unrelated genes.
Common types of neurodegenrative diseases affected by free radicals
A. Alzheimer’s disease
B. Parkinson’s disease
C. Multiple sclerosis
D. Lou Gehrig's diseases
A. Alzheimer’s disease
Alzheimer's disease is defined as a health condition of an irreversible, progressive brain disease that slowly destroys memory and thinking skills, and eventually even the ability to carry out the simplest activity, due to the loss of neurons and synapses in the cerebral cortex and certain subcortical regions.
Early Alzheimer’s disease signs and symptoms
a. Loss of memory
b. Amnestic mild cognitive impairment
Mild Alzheimer’s disease symptoms
a. Getting lost
b. Trouble handling money
c. Paying bills
d. Taking longer to complete normal daily tasks
f. Repeating question
g. Poor judgment, and small
h. Mood and personality change
Moderate Alzheimer’s Disease
a. Loss of language control,
b. Loss of reasoning,
c. Loss of sensory processing, and
d. Loss of conscious thought.
e. Memory loss and
g. People begin to have problems recognizing family and friend
Severe Alzheimer’s Disease
People with severe Alzheimer’s cannot communicate and are completely dependent on others for their care.
2. Risk factors
Age is the most important risk factor. As we age, beside our body's ability to repair itself becomes less efficient, but also the accumulation of plague over the years has started affecting the functions of the brain due to cell death. The brain has reached the stage for the disease to occur. Over 1 in 20 Canadians over age 65 is affected by Alzheimer's disease.
b. Family history and Genetics
Although it happens to (5-7%) of the patience, but family history of certain genes mutation has caused the development of abnormal characteristics which associated with early onset Alzheimer's disease or Alzheimer's disease.
c. ApoE4 Gene
This gene is the most important genetic risk factor for the sporadic form of Alzheimer's disease. Since the ApoE genes regulate the production of a protein that helps carry cholesterol, but the inherited ApoE4 gene is associated with the high risk of the development of Alzheimer's disease.
d. Female Gender
Twice as many women get Alzheimer's disease than men, it may be due to female live longer than male. Other suggested that it is due to decline of production of estrogen and hormone replacement therapy.
e. Cardiovascular Disease
High blood pressure and cholesterol levels can contributed to plague building up in the brain cells. Strokes and mini-strokes can increase the risk of oxidation of the brain cells.
f. Oxidative stress
Oxidative stress is a significant cause in the formation of the disease.
g. Down Syndrome
People with trisomy 21 (Down Syndrome) have an extra gene copy which exhibits Alzheimer's disease by 40 years of age.
3. Free radicals and Alzheimer’s disease
Free radicals causes Alzheimer’s disease is well defined in many researches. In a study of protein oxidation in the brain in Alzheimer's disease by using immunohistochemistry and two-dimensional fingerprinting of oxidatively modified proteins (two-dimensional Oxyblot) together to investigate protein carbonyl formation in the Alzheimer's disease brain, researchers found that oxidative stress-induced injury may involve the selective modification of different intracellular proteins may lead to the neurofibrillary degeneration of neurons in the brain. (source)
4. Antioxidants and Alzheimer’s disease
a. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)
Researchers found that DHA increases phosphatidylserine, a naturally occurring component found in every cell membrane of the body and improves the memory of animals with Alzheimer's disease by suppressing oxidative damage in the brain.
b. Vitamin E
In a study, researcher found that vitamin E, and drugs that reduce generalized inflammation, may slow the decline of mental and physical abilities in people with Alzheimer's disease (AD) over the long term. Also vitamin E inhibits cells damage and cells death caused by beta-amyloid, which is toxic to brain cells.
In one double-blind, placebo-controlled study, patients who had Alzheimer’s disease who took 300 milligrams per day (mg/day) of phosphatidylserine scored significantly better on standardized memory tests at the end of the 12-week trial period than patients who received placebo.
Antioxidant are found at much lower levels for patients with Alzheimer’s disease, such as serum of vitamin A, C, E, zinc and transfferin.
e. Muscarinic cholinergic receptors
researchers found that Alzheimer’s disease patients exhibit the significant loss of muscarinic cholinergic receptors neurons that cause the reduced volume of neural transmission leading to the loss of memory.
B. Parkinson's disease
Parkinson's disease is defined as a health condition associated to the depletion of dopamine in the corpus striatum as a result of neuron loss in the substantianigra. The disease most often occurs in the middle age and beyond.
a. Tremble involuntarily.
b. Stiffness of the muscles
c. Tremor at rest
d. Spontaneous movements
e. Numbness, tingling, itchiness or discomfort of the neck or limbs
2. Rick factors
The levels of dopamine starts decline with age, but in some people it declines faster resulting in Parkinson's disease.
Although no one know why men are at higher risk than women to get PD but some researchers suspect it may be due to hormone estrogen which protects against the declining of dopamine neurons.
If one of your relative in direct family has or had PD, then your chances of getting PD are increased due to gene abnormality or alternation.
Excessive exposure to industrial toxic chemical toxin due to occupation or increase the risk of the development of Parkinson's disease. Researchers found that people who live in a rural agricultural area and used well water for drinking and cooking with heavily used of toxic chemicals were at risk to have higher rate.
Drugs not only damage our nervous system, they also increase the risk for PD as they contributes to the declining of dopamine producing neurons in the brain.
3. Free Radicals and Parkinson's disease
Researcher found that patients with Parkinson's disease have low levels of polyunsaturated fat in the substania nigra than other part of the brain, but higher levels of lipid peroxidation as indication of higher levels of malonaldehyde.
Also patients with the disease found to contain waste pigments of lipofusion and other polymers in the neurons where dopamine is most active.
4. Antioxidants and Parkinson's disease
Antioxidants play an vital role for patients with Parkinson's disease, as researchers found the prohression of the disease accompany with reduction of antioxidants in the affected parts of the brain.
a. Superoxide dismutase
Researcher found that the progression of the disease may be associated with the decrease levels of superoxide dismutase, a antioxidant enzyme.
b. NADH ubiquinone reductase
Researcher found that the levels of NADH ubiquinone reductase is decreased in the substania nigra due to its inhibitors, leading to apoptosis, but can be retreated with antioxidants Nacetylcysteine and alpha lipoic acid.
c. Uric acid
Researchers at the University of Hawaii recently reported that people with a high blood level of the natural antioxidant uric acid have a lower risk of developing Parkinson's disease than do people with lower levels, but high levels of uric acid increases the risk of kidney diseases and gout.
d. Vitamin C
Vitamin C is one of powerful and effective antioxidant in scavenging hydroxyl radicals as it enters the cerebrospinal fluid thus protecting against Parkinson's disease or slowing down the progression of the disease.
Researcher found that glutathoine is one of the antioxidant which can help to deactivate the harmful product HNE of lipid peroxidation.
C. Multiple Sclerosis
Multiple Sclerosis is an inflammation of central nervous system disease in which the fatty myelin sheaths around the axons of the brain and spinal cord are deterioted, leading to impair of prope conduction of nerve impulse.
1. Signs and Symptoms
a. Loss of sensitivity or tingling, pricking or numbness
b. Muscle weakness
c. Muscle spasms,
d. Difficulty in moving
e. Difficulties with coordination and balance
f. Speech problem
g. Problem swallowing
h. Visual problems
j. Acute or chronic pain
k. Problem in urination
l. Bowel difficulties
If one of the closed relative in the direct family family has multiple sclerosis, you are likely to get it. The disease has an overall familial recurrence rate of 20%.
b. Environment factor
b.1. Sunlight and vitamin D
Researcher found that people with decreased sunlight exposure has a higher risk of MS, as a result of decreased vitamin D production and intake.
Researchers from the Harvard School of Public Health reported that current and past smokers with multiple sclerosis were more than three times as likely as patients who had never smoked to have more rapid progression of their disease.
People with occupation with exposure to toxins are at high risk to get MS.
c. Autoimmune disease
Researcher found that MS may be be caused by immune system's attack on blood-brain barrier (BBB), entrance into the CNS, and recognition of the myelin basic protein (MBP) and proteolipid (PLP) induces the stripping of the protective coating of myelin and the eventual formation of plaques. These plaques or lesions can be found throughout the central nervous system, but are most prominently found in the white matter, optic nerve, brain stem, spinal cord, and cerebellum.
Evidence for viruses as a cause of MS, including the presence of immunoglobulins that can be seen when a patient's blood serum gained from blood plasma, is analyzed.
3. Free radicals and Multiple Sclerosis
a. The DeVine theory suggested that free radical activity is a contributory factors in MS, theory suggestive that immune system and free radical cooperation cause the generation of in the myelin itself that deteriorates the myelin shealts.
b. Cooper theory went on step further by suggested that free radicals actually initiate MS, by damaging the myelin, leading to initiating and promoting of activity of T-cells.
4. Antioxidants and Multiple sclerosis
Antioxidants can help protect the neural tissue from damage that reduce the risk of inflammation result in lessening the risk of oxidative stress.
An imflammatory cytokine has been associated with MS is inhibited by antioxidants of green tea, and others such as curcumin, quercetin, etc.
Melatonin functions as an antioxidant and has the ability to protect neurons from free radicals cause of lipid peroxidation.
Some studied found that the levels of selenium in the blood of people with MS was lower than in that of people without MS.
Niacin acts as antioxidant is a key to the successful treatment of multiple sclerosis, researchers at Harvard Medical School found that Niacin profoundly prevents the degeneration of demyelinated axons and improves the behavioral deficits.
e. Vitamin D
A study published in a recent issue of the journal Neurology, the group receiving the vitamin D demonstrated a remarkable 41 percent reduction in new MS events with no meaningful side effects.
D. Lou Gehrig's diseases
Lou Gehrig's diseases is defined as a condition of neurological disorders that selectively affect the motor neurones caused by the degeneration of neurons located in the two separate anatomical structures of the spinal cord and the cerebral cortex that provide activity of carrying nerve impulses from receptors to the central nervous system.
1.1. Initial Symptoms
a. Muscle weakness affecting an arm or a leg
b. Slurred and nasal speech.
c. Tripping or stumbling
d. Difficulty speaking clearly or swallowing
e. Loss of tongue mobility
f. Affect intercostal muscles that support breathing
g. Uncontrollable laughter, crying or smiling
1.2. Progressive symptoms
a. Unable to stand or walk
b. Unable to use their hands and arms
c. Unable to swallow and chew and eat normally
d. Mild problems with word-generation, attention, or decision-making
e. poor breathing
Some theories suggested that ALS is a result of the diminish of glutamate in the synapses, causing the build up of plague due to overflow of calcium into motor neurons.
b. Gene alternation
Gene alternation of superoxide dismutase enzyme will reduce the functions in catalyzing the dismutation of superoxide into oxygen and hydrogen peroxide.
c. Genetic defect
An inherited genetic defect on the coding for superoxide dismutase (chromosome 21) is associated with approximately 20% of familial cases of ALS.
d. Environmental factors
Prolonged exposure to a dietary neurotoxin called BMAA (a neurotoxin found in the seeds of the cycad) produced by cyanobacteria is one suspected risk factor to cause ALS.
e. Toxic exposure
There is another epidemiologic association suggested a link of toxins and ALS.
f. Other theories have been proposed that may cause ALS, including autoimmune disorders, heavy metal poisoning, and even viral infection.
3. Free radicals and Lou Gehrig's disease
Researchers found that glutamate in the synapses enhances the production of free radicals compounds only in motor nerve cells but spares other nerve cells such as cells control senses and other body functions, causing to more production of free radicals and leading to disrupting of the surrounding support cells, called astrocytes, which regulate glutamate levels.
4. Antioxidants and Lou Gehrig's disease
a. Vitamin B12 (methylcobalamin)
Researcher found that high doses of vitamin B12 (25 mg) as an antioxidant have been shown to improve or slow muscle wasting in the later stages of patients with ALS disease.
b. Vitamin E
Vitamin E beside helps to protect cell membranes from lipid peroxidation damage that reduce the risk of breakdown of the cell membrane, causing ALS.
c. Superoxide dismutase enzyme
Research found that mutations in the superoxide dismutase enzyme can increase the risk ALS in catalyzing the dismutation of superoxide into oxygen and hydrogen peroxide.
d. Cerebral cortex
Researcher found that oxidative protein damage and DNA alternation were found in elevating levels in the cerebral cortex of those with sporadic ALS.
e. Amino acids
study found that diet high in amino acids as antioxidants have shown some promising effect in treating ALS.
There are over 100 different forms of arthritis, including osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, and related autoimmune diseases. Arthritis is defined as a health condition with characteristics of redness, swelling, accompanied with pain and loss of function due to inflammation that occurs around the joint, damage to the joint.
There are 2 types of inflammation
a. Acute inflammation
Acute inflammation happened in a short period, the symptoms may only last for a few seconds but no longer in a few days due to increased blood flow, permeability of the and migration of neutrophils out of the venules and into interstitial spaces.
b. Chronic inflammation
Chronic inflammaory disease may persist over av long time days, months or years. In chronic inflammation, the system has gotten hung up, and instead of protecting the organism (our bodies) it starts to kill the organism, slowly but surely, leading to connective tissue become inflamed and swollen in the joints.
Depending to the types of conditions
a. Stiffness on awakening or after prolonged rest
b. Pain in a joint during or after use
c. Discomfort in a joint before or during a change in weather
d. Swelling and a loss of flexibility in a joint
e. Bony lumps (nodules) that develop on the end or middle joint of the fingers
f. Pain and swelling in the smaller joints of the hands and feet
g. Overall aching or stiffness, especially after sleeping or periods of motionlessness
h. Joints that are swollen, painful, and warm to the touch during the initial attack and ensuing flare-ups
i. nodules, or lumps, that most commonly occur near the elbow (but can occur anywhere)
a. Genetic or inherited
Although the cause of arthritis is not unknown, researchers suspect it may be caused by alternation of gene such as NOS2 or on the X chromosome that inherited from you parent.
Autoimmunity is a disorder of immune system has lost its sensitivity to differentiate the body cells and foreign invaders, as it begins to attack the cells of the body, leading to inflammation due to effects of free radicals.
Some theories suggested that wear and tear over the year may increase the risk of suffering of joint injuries such as people works in a job that puts daily stress on the joints, athletics, etc.
d. Bacterial or viral infections
Due to an abnormal immune response that destroys the body's own tissues - in the case of RA, the joints are the target.
Gout is caused by crystal deposits within the joints. 80% of gout sufferers are men. It is a medical condition usually characterized by recurrent attacks of acute inflammatory arthritis—a red, tender, hot, swollen joint due to elevating levels of uric acid in the blood which crystallize and are deposited in joints, tendons, and surrounding tissues.
3. Free radicals and Arthritis
Researchers found that rheumatoid joint fluid contains significant amounts hydroxyl radical. Its presence suggests a failure of the normal immune defense system within the joint as transferrin has no longer performed its normal function in chemicals binding, leading to inflammation.
Other study suggested that once the inflammatory condition is progressing, free radicals and the chain of free radicals reaction cause radicals occur in high numbers in the affected area, elevating the swelling and promoting degeneration as it becomes a cycle process.
4. Antioxidants and Arthritis
a. Vitamin C
Vitamin C beside is vital in restoring the antioxidants vitamin E in scavenging the free radicals before they can become harmful to the body, it also protects the capillaries by preventing them from breaking off, triggering an inflammatory reaction. Other study found that vitamin C also reduces the risk of cartilage loss and developing knee pain.
b. Vitamin E and fish oil
In genetically altered mice study, researcher found that diet included fish oil plus vitamin E significantly reduce the levels of inflammation by analyzing the pro and anti-inflammatory cytokines in the blood serum.
Since glucosamine, a compound of the simple sugar glucose and the amino acid glutamine, is a precursor for glycosaminoglycans, and they are a major component of joint cartilage. Study found that supplemental glucosamine may help to prevent cartilage degeneration and treat arthritis.
d. DLPA (dl- phenylalanine)
DLPA, a mixture of D-Phenylalanine and L-Phenylalanine, is a nutritional supplement amino acid. Researchers found that DLPA effectively reduces arthritis pain and joint inflammation in many patients.
e. Glucosamine and Methylsulfonylmethane
In a double-blind, placebo-controlled study with osteoarthritis of the knee were given a combination of glucosamine and MSM, or placebo. After 12 weeks, the results suggested combination of MSM and glucosamine may improve arthritis symptoms as compared to placebo.
1. Immune system and functioningAlthough immune system have done a great job in protecting us against foreign invasion, but unfortumately, during process od their functions, they may induce the production of free radicals and chain of free radicals that can be harmful to our body.
a. Red and white blood cells
During the process, the tissue of bone marrow of the long bone produce stem cells which will evolve into progenitor cells. This progenitor cells finally differentiate into white and redblood cells. While the red blood cells deliver oxygen (O2) and nutrients to the body tissues via the blood flow through the circulatory system, the white blood cells or leukocytes are cells of the immune system involved in defending the body against both infectious disease and foreign materials.
b. Thymus gland
The thymus gland a specialized organ form part of the immune system. It helps in the production and functioning of T-lymphocytes (T cells), which are critical cells of the adaptive immune system by providing an inductive environment for development of T-lymphocytes from hematopoietic progenitor cells. The thymus gland starts to shrink from the time when we was born and by age of 60, it had shriveled away to almost nothing.
Beside it is important to the functions of above, it also produced varies protein hormones, such as IL-2, is a protein manufactured by lymphocytes. Peripheral blood obtained from patients with chronic hepatitis B and viral infections responded to THF with increased production of IL-2. This suggests a possible antiviral role for this thymic hormone, and is one of the reasons we should replace thymic hormone as we pass the second decade.
c. Lymphatics system
The lymphatic system form part of the immune system comprising a network of conduits called lymphatic vessels that carry a clear fluid called lymph unidirectionally toward the heart. Beside having a function of removing interstitial fluid from tissues, absorbing and transporting fatty acids and fats from the circulatory system and transporting immune cells to and from the lymph nodes into the bones, it also enhances the immune system of the body by defending the body against the infections and spread of tumors due to its connective tissue with various types of white blood cells enmeshed in it, most numerous being the lymphocytes.
Spleen formed part of immune system, is imporant in the filtration process of removal of old or damaged red blood cells from the circulation and filters out bacteria of the blood. The immunological function of spleen in human body is looked after by the white pulp which consists of aggregates of lymphoid tissue. Abnormal function of spleen can result in enlarged organ due to its inability to perform function of removing of old or damaged red blood cells, leading to accumulation or trapping of red blood cells, causing major turmoils in immune system.
2. Types of free radicals utilized by Immune system
Free Radicals play an important role in the function of the Immune System. The immune systen produce free radicals to kill foreign microbes, but the production of free radical sometime can be excessive, leading to formation of a large number of free radicals that stimulate the formation of more free radicals, leading to even more damage, until they are brought to stop.
Nitric oxide can contribute to reperfusion injury if excessive amount produced during reperfusion and reacts with superoxide to produce the damaging oxidant peroxynitrite.
Superoxide is a compound that possesses the superoxide anion with the chemical formula O2−. It is biologically quite toxic and is deployed by the immune system to kill invading microorganisms produced in large quantities by the enzyme NADPH oxidase.
If over produce, superoxide may contribute to the pathogenesis of many diseases , such as radiation poisoning and hyperoxic injury and aging as aresult of oxidation.
Neutrophils, the phagocytes can internalize and kill microbes, but each phagocytic event causes the formation of a phagosome into which reactive oxygen species (ROS) and hydrolytic enzymes are secreted, leading to respiratory burst, resulting in activating the enzyme NADPH oxidase, which produces large quantities of superoxide.
d. Chain reaction
Since free radicals are caused by the body’s own natural processes by stealing oxygen electron from other cell, its chain effect result in production of even more free radicals. These aditional free radicals continue until they are stopped, leading to toxins, radiation, etc. that weakens the immune system.
3. How free radicals affect Immune system
There are many factors which affect immune system as we age. Hormone declining such as human growth hormone and Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) are the major influences. In factor, some researchers suggested free radicals is one of major contribution to the declining of immune system.
The declining of the thymus function contributes a direct effect on the immune system due to diminish of quantity of T cells and immune factors.
b. Lipid peroxidation
Researchers found that lipid peroxidation are able to attack immune cells membrane, leading to the impediment of cells membrane activities, causing susceptibility diseases found in aging person.
c. NADHP oxidase
NADHP oxidase (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-oxidase) is a membrane-bound enzyme complex found in the plasma membrane. Free radicals cause damage to membrane, leading to diminish of its function in fighting against foreign invasion.
Free radicals damage immune cells that affect the function of cytokines in transmitting intercellular signals, leading to many disease states and conditions ranging from major depression and Alzheimer's disease to cancer.
4. antioxidants and immune system
Enzyme antioxidants, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase are best known to defense our body in fighting or scavenging against forming of free radicals by neutralizing them. Other antioxidants include
Zinc, as a antioxidant is essential mineral in ading immune system by enhancing the peoper function of T cells which belong to a group of white blood cells known as lymphocytes, in fighting against damaging free radicals.
Selenium is one of the powerful antioxidant. In the extracellular space, it helps to influence immune processes by proliferating the response to mitogen, and macrophages, leukotriene.
c. Vitamin A
vitamin A plays an essential roles in enhancing a broad range of immune processes, including lymphocyte activation and proliferation, T-helper-cell differentiation, the production of specific antibody isotypes and regulation of the immune response.
d. Vitamin C
Researchers found that vitamin C raised the concentration in the blood of immunoglobulin A, M that promotes the ability of antibodies and phagocytic cells to clear pathogens.
e. Vitamin E
In aged mice study showed that Vitamin E beside increased both cell-dividing and IL-producing capacities of naive T cells it also enhances the immune functions in association with significant improvement in resistance to influenza infection.
Carotenoids reduces oxidation damage to cells and protects LDL cholesterol from oxidation, thus reducing the risk of aging and chronic diseases caused by damaging free radicals.
Aging is a natural process, no one can stop but delay it. Over last 20+ years, researchers found that free radicals have played a majors role in the progression of aging process as they damage every cells of the whole body. One of the majoy cause of free radical is that of setting a chain reaction, if left unchecked, it can cause death of the cells, triggering the attack to the adjacent cells. At the middle age, due to weakened immune system, damage of body organs and reduced levels of antioxidants, our health is deteriorate and aging progressed at a fast rate, it is up to you to delay it by eating healthy, living a healthy style, exercise, etc. if you want to look younger than you biological age, live longer, healthier and diseases free.
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